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36 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
What is organic chemisrty?
The study of the compunds of carbon
What are functional groups?
They are sites of chemical reactivity.
What are functional groups?
Functional groups are also the characteristic structural units by which both classify and name organic compounds.
Name the important functional groups used for this course.
Hydroxyl group: alcohols
Amino: amines
Carbonyl: aldehydes and ketones
Carboxyl: carboxylic acids
What enables us to account for the fact that carbon forms four covalent bonds that may be various combinations of single, double, and triple bonds?
The Lewis Model of Bonding
How many covalent bonds does carbon form?
Four and has no unshared pairs of electrons
How many covalent bonds does nitrogen form?
Three. One unshared pair of electrons
What forms two covalent bonds and two unshared pair of electrons.
What forms one covalent bond and has no unshared pairs of electrons
what is a hydroxyl group?
An -OH group bonded to a tetrahedral carbon atom
name the three types of alcohols?
primary, secondary and tertiary
the Lewis structure is the same as what structure?
structural formulas
What is a carbonyl group bonded to two carbon atoms?
a ketone
What is a compound containing a carbonyl group bonded to a hydrogen
Is there any difference between vanillin made synthetically and vanilla beans?
There is no difference
What important experiment was carried out by Wohler in 1828?
He converted two inorganic compounds, ammonium chloride and silver cyanate, into urea, an organic compund
What is the meaning of tertiary when referring to alcohols?
It means that the carbon bearing the
-OH group is bonded to three other carbon atoms
What is a compound that is composed of only carbon and hydrogen?
What type of bonds do saturated hydrocarbons contain?
Only single
What is a saturated hydrocarbon whose carbon atoms are arranged in an open chain
What is a cycloalkane?
A saturated hydrocarbon in which two carbon atoms in the chain are joined to form a ring
Alkanes and cycloalkanes are commonly referred to as what?
Aliphatic hydrocarbons
What are constitutional isomers?
Compounds that have the same molecular formula but different structural formulas.
Structural formulas that have the same order of attachment of atoms represent the same compound; those that have different orders of attachment of atoms represent isomers.
What does IUPAC stand for?
International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry. A system for naming organic compouds and was made official in 1892
Describe IUPAC
Name of an unbranched chain of carbon atoms consists of two parts:
1. a prefix to show the number of carbon atoms in a chain
2. the suffix -ane to show that the compound is a saturated hydrocarbon
what is an alkyl group?
A group derived by removing a hydrogen from an alkane
What are cis-trans isomers?
Cis= same side (two black hashes)
trans=across from (1 dark and 1 dotted hash)
Isomers that have the same order of attachment of their atoms but a different arrangement of their atoms in space due to the presence of either a ring or a carbon carbon double bond
Name the most important physical properties of organic compounds.
Melting point, boiling point, solubitily and density
Alkanes are what type of compounds?
They are nonpolar compounds and the only forces of attraction between their molecules are London dispersion forces
At room temperature low molecular weight alkanes are________
very high______________
For any group of least branched isomers. alkane constitutional isomers generally has the highest/lower boiling point?
Highest. The most branched has the lowest boiling point
Are all liquid and solid alkanes more or less dense than water?
less dense
Alkanes are __________in water but______
soluble in each other and in other nonpolar organic solvents such as benzene.
insoluble, soluble
What does natural gas consist of?
90 to 95% methane with lesser amounts of ethane and other lower molecular weight hydrocarbons
What is petroleum?
A liquid mixture of thousands of different carbons