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86 Cards in this Set

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List 3 nutrients that supply energy and more?
1. Carbs

2. Lipids

3. Protein
List 2 nutrients that do not supply energy?
1. Vitamins

2. Minerals
Other than vitamins, minerals, carbs, lipids, and protein name another nutrient?
Water
List 4 non-nutrients?
1. Alcohol

2. Phytochemicals (plant-derived and bio-active)

3. Pigments

4. Additives
Give an examples of how pigments may be a good clue about certain aspects of food?
Beta Carotene = Orange or Dark Green = Carrots or Cantoloupe.
What are the two "E"s?
1. Essential

2. Energy
What does "essential" mean in reference to nutrition?
Does not simply mean "necessary", it means that something must be included in the diet.
How is energy stored?
In chemical bonds; molecules are stored until energy is used (stored via calories).
List 4 energy molecules and the amount of energy per gram in each?
1. Carbohydrates: 4kcal/g

2. Protein: 4kcal/g

3. Fat (lipids): 9kcal/g

4. Alcohol: 7kcal/g
What is a myth about vitamins?
That they supply energy.
What are vitamins?
They are essential organic nutrients, reqd in small amounts; do not supply energy; may be degraded.
What is a mineral?
(metal ions), reqd for structure (ex. Ca for bones and teeth) or function (Fe for hemoglobin and cytochromes,Mg); indestructible.
Minerals and vitamins do not have ? they only allow us to use it.
They do not have energy they only allow us to use it.
Are minerals or vitamins referred to as indestructible explain?
Minerals are indestructible, they cannot be degraded by heat. However, some vitamins can be degraded which means you can cook them out of veggies.
Is water considered an essential nutrient?
Yes
Nutritional research must involve which groups?
Experimental and control groups.
What effect must be considered in nutritional research?
The placebo effect.
Does nutritional research show cause and effect relationships?
No, just correlations.
What distinguishes popular nutritional research from professional nutritional research?
Professional nutrition research is peer-reviewed.
What are the American & Canadian nutritional standards?
Dietary Reference Intakes (DRI). It is a general category that is age and sex specific. It includes EAR, RDA, AI, and UL.
What does EAR stand for?
Estimated Avg Reqts. These are not found on food labels. There not very useful to us because they are just a population avg.
What does RDA stand for?
Recommended Dietary Allowances. These are supported by extensive research. These are considered the gold standard.
What does AI stand for?
Adequate Intakes. Supported by some research.
What does UL stand for?
Tolerable Upper Intake Levels. For example, sometimes too many vitamins is not recommended.
Of the nutritional standards which focus on the minimum allowances?
EAR, RDA, and AI
What is a difference between EAR (estimated avg reqts) and RDA (Recommended dietary allowances)?
RDA is not an average. It is at the far right end of a bell-curve representing the number of people for whom a given reqt is appropriate. EAR is an avg, right in the middle of the same curve.
If people just went by the EAR what would happen to the population?
Half of the population would be deficient.
The RDA for vitamins and minerals is enough for ?% of the population.
The requirements are enough for 98% of the pop. (nutrients)
How is the RDA for vitamins and minerals (nutrients) differ from RDA for energy?
RDA for nutrients is appropriate for 98% of the subpopulation. RDA for energy is the avg for the subpopulation.
What is a popular misconception about RDA?
That below the RDA is bad and above the RDA is good. (Naive view)
What is a more accurate view of the relationship between EAR, RDA, AI, and UL?
All the values are averages. EAR is not very useful, it is just a pop avg. RDA is the most useful. UL is what you should not go over on an average day.

There is a danger of deficiency below EAR. There is a safe range from a little below the RDA to the UL limit. There is a danger of toxicity above the UL.

(See fig 1-6 in slide 9)
DRI's apply to who?
Healthy people. Not people with some diseases or disorders. For example nutrient guidelines differ for burn victims.
For nutrient DRI's what % must you remember?
98%.
For energy DRI's what % must you remember?
50%
DRI's are meant to apply to ?, not ?.
Food not supplements.
DRI's are ? reqts ? ?.
They are avg reqts over time. It is ok to have ups and downs.
One problem with detecting nutritional defeciencies is what?
Often the problem is going on before symptoms begin to show.
List two diseases associated with deficiency (this was seen earlier and in developing countries)?
1. Scurvy - Vit C

2. Rickets - Vit D
Today, in developed countries, chronic diseases are often associated with ?.
Excess
List 4 diseases associated with excess?
1. HD

2. Cancer (maybe)

3. Stroke

4. Diabetes
What is a general principle about a healthy diet? Explain?
ABCD (+ MV)

A = adequacy = enough of each nutrient and energy

B = balance = enough but not too much, of each

C = calorie-control

D = nutrient Density

M = moderation = not too much, esp. fat and sugar

V = variety = a little of everything
What is nutrient density?
The amt of a given nutrient per (kilo)calorie. There is no such thing as 'generic' nutrient density, it has to be specific. For example, Calcium nutrient density.

Nutrient/kcal

Allows you to compare 2 different products on a test.
Give 2 examples of nutrient density?
1. A cup of ice cream = 170mg Ca++/265cal

2. A cup of nonfat milk = 300mg Ca++/85cal


So the milk has more calcium and less calories.
What is probably more helpful for most people than DRIs?
The food guide pyramid.
What does the food pyramid make suggestions about?
Ranges of food servings from various groups, depending on avg caloric intake.
What introduced the new food pyramid in 2005?
Dietary Guidelines for America (DGA)
The amount of estimated caloric reqts depends on ? and ?.
Age and sex
What are the estimated calorie reqts for a sedentary adult?
1600-2400kcal

(aim towards low end)
What are the est. calorie reqts for a moderately active adult?
1800-2800kcal

(mid-range: 2200-calorie diet)
What are the est. calorie reqts for active adults?
2000-3200 kcal

(high end: 3200 kcal)
Know how to use table 3 in notes.
Know how to use table 3 in notes.
What is the recommended daily intake of fruit for a person consuming 2000cal/day?
2 cups (4 servings)
What is the recommended daily intake of vegetables for a person consuming 2000cal/day?
2.5 cups (5 servings)

Some of these recommendations are based on color.
1 serving is equivalent to ? cup.
1/2 cup
What is the recommended daily intake of grains for a person consuming 2000cal/day?
6 oz total.

3 oz of whole grains + 3 oz of other grains (per day)

(3 + 3)

(The whole grains are esp important because they have nutrients and fibers)
What is the recommended daily intake of meat and beans for a person consuming 2000cal/day?
5.5 oz equivalents
What is the recommended daily intake of milk groups for a person consuming 2000cal/day?
3 cups
What is the recommended daily intake for oils for a person consuming 2000cal/day?
24 g (6 tsp)
Whom are exchange list important for?
Dieticians (but pharmacists should be familiar with them)
What are exchange list used for?
They are used to achieve calorie-control and moderation; originally for diabetics. They sort foods based on proportions of carbs, proteins (meat/meat substitutes), fat.
List 4 types of grains?
(They are not all the same)

1. As-is

2. Refined

3. Enriched or fortified (+Fe, thiamin, riboflavin, niacin, folate)

4. Whole-grain (almost back to as-is, where we started, vit., min and fiber back)
How much niacin is whole grain bread compared to unenriched/refined white bread?
There is 100% in whole grain but almost none in unenriched.
How much vitamin B6 is in whole grain vs. enriched white bread vs. unenriched white bread?
Whole grain = 100%

Enriched is no better than refined.
What is the bottom line between whole grain vs refined bread?
Whole grain much better.
When it comes to vegetables what is best?
Fresh is best then frozen then canned.

Especially dark green leafy, yellow-orange.
What is include in the category of legumes?
Bean and pea family.
What is the best kind of fruit?
Fresh is best. Colorful is good. Juices are good but contain little fiber. Drinks or -ades are not juices.
What are good sources of proteins, vitamins, and minerals?
Meat, fish, and poultry.
What varies between meat, fish, and poultry?
Fat varies.
Are meat, fish, and poultry necessary for a good diet?
No they are not absolutely necessary for a good diet.
What is the fat content in milk and other dairy products?
Whole ~3% fat

Reduced fat ~2%

Low fat ~1%

Nonfat = 0%
On food labels an ingredient list is arranged how?
From most to least.
The serving size on food labels may or may not be what?
May or may not be typical.
List 13 nutrition facts that must be shown on food labels?
1. Calories

2. Cal. from fat

3. Total fat

4. Saturated fat

5. Cholesterol

6. Sodium

7. Total carbs

8. Dietary fiber

9. Sugar

10. Protein

11. Vitamins A & C

12. Fe

13. Ca
What 4 general categories are included on food labels?
1. Ingredient list

2. Serving size

3. Nutrition facts

4. Percent of Daily Values
What is a DV?
Daily Value : Avg recommended daily intake for a person on a 2000-cal diet.

The avg for the population is not based on age or sex.
What concerning DVs is included on a food label?
The number on the label is the fraction (%) of the DV of a given nutrient in one serving.
If your diet includes more or less than 2000 cal/day how can you estimate your own DV?
By multiplying the standard DV by the factor (your calories)/2000.
The DV for vit A is 10,000 IU. What is the DV for a person on a 2500 cal. diet?
10,000 x (2500/2000) = 12500 IU
What is the utility of DVs?
To compare foods, not to accurately determine adequacy for a given individual.
What do nutrient claims do?
Indicate specific content of a nutrient.
Who defines and regulates nutrient claims?
The FDA
What are the requirements for the nutrient claim 'cholesterol free'?
It does not mean 0 cholesterol.

It means < 2mg cholesterol/serving. It also must have < or = to 2g sat fat/serving.
What is a health claim?
It describes a specific association between nutrient/food and a health problem.
What approval is reqd for a health claim?
FDA approval is reqd.
Give an example of a health claim on food label?
Ca and reduced risk for osteoporosis.

This reqs Ca > or equal to 20% DV

P < = Ca