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67 Cards in this Set

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Lipids are: Insoluble/Soluble?
Insoluble
List the membrane lipids.
Phosphoglycerides
Sphingolipids
Cholesterol
Triacylglycerol is synthesized mainly in the:
Liver
Triacylglycerol is transported in the blood as______ & stored in ______ ?
lipoproteins
Adipose tissue
Chylomicrons are produced in?
Intestinal cells (from dietary lipids)
VLDL is produced in?
The Liver (from dietary carbohydrates)
The triacylglycerols of Chylomicrons & VLDL are hydolyzed in blood by ____ into _____ & _______?
Lipoprotein Lipase
to fatty acids and glycerol.
The key regulatory enzyme of cholesterol is_____?
HMG CoA reductase
Where is cholesterol converted into bile salts, which forms steroid hormones in endocrine tissues.
Liver
Eicosanoids & are derived from?
Prostaglandin, thromboxanes, & leukotrienes.
derived from polyunsaturated fatty acids.
Spingolipids contain
ceremide w/a variety of groups attached.
Sphingomyelin contains
phosphocholine
cerebrosides contain
a sugar residue
gangliosides contain
many suger residues
Cholesterol consists of
4 rings and an aliphatic side chain.
Bile salts and steroid hormones are derived from?
cholesterol
Prostaglandins & Leukotrienes are derived from____ such as _____.
polyunsaturated fatty acids
such as arachidonic acid
fat soluble vitamins:
A, D, E, & K.
The major membrane lipid is:______ but ____ & ______ are also present.
Phosphoglycerides
sphingolipids & Cholesterol
Carbohydrates are attached to proteins & Lipids on the ___ side of the cell mem. (extending into the_____?)
Are attaced to the exterior side of the cell mem.
Extend into the extracellular space.
Dietary triaclyglycerols are digested where?
Are digested in the small intestine.
dietary lipids are emulsified by:
are emulsified by bile salts
Mem's are composed mainly of:
lipids & proteins
What digests triacylglycerol (w/help from colipase) to 2-monoacylglycerols & free fatty acids?
pancreatic lipase
The product released by fatty acid synthase complex?
Palmitate
Acetyl CoA (from glucose) is converted by acetyl CoA carboxylase to ______?
Malonyl CoA
Acetyl CoA carboxylase is inhibited by:
Phosphorylation
Malonyl CoA formation requires
biotin & ATP
Acetyl CoA is activated by:
dephosphorylation, citrate, & induced by insulin.
Pyruvate is converted to acetyl CoA by:
pyruvate dehydrogenase
Pyruvate is converted to oxaloacetate by:
pyruvate carboxylase
The glycerol moiety, from glycerol 3 phosphate, reacts w/2 fatty acyl CoA to form:
Phosphatidic acid-in the liver & adipose tissue.
Adipose tissue which lacks ______ cannot generate glycerol 3 phosphate from glycerol.
lacks glycerol kinase
Liver & adipose tissue could convert glucose to __________ through glycolysis.
dihyroxyacetone phosphate (DHAP)
Triacylglycerol is stored in________?
stored in adipose tissue
In the liver, triacylglycerol is incorporated into_______?
VLDL
Malonyl CoA, the product of acetyl CoA carboxylase, inhibits____________?
Carnitine acyltransferase 1
Fatty acid cofactors:
NADPH, ATP, Mn+2, biotin, HCO3, Acetyl-CoA
A cholesterol precursor can be converted to ______.
1,25-dihydroxycholecalciferol
(active form of vit D.)
Bile salts are stored in the ______and released during a meal to aid in ______ ______.
gall bladder
lipid digestion
HMG CoA reductase reduces cytosolic acetyl CoA to ________.
mevalonic acid
Bile salts are activated by ___ ____________.
ATP and Coenzyme A
Chylomicrons are the _____ dense b/c they have the most triacylglycerol and least amount proteins.
least dense
IDL (derived from VLDL)is ______ dense then VLDL and has less than ________the amount of triacylglycerides.
more dense then VLDL
less than one-half
LDL has the highest content of _______ ___ _______.
cholesterol and it's esters.
HDL is the most dense and has the ______ ___ and the ______ ______.
has the lowest triacylglycerol and the highest protein content.
Chylomicron's major apoprotein:
Apo B-48
Apo C-II activates
lipoprotein lipase
HDL nascent chylomicrons
apo E
VLDL is formed from triacyglycerols and packaged w/apo____?
packaged with apo B-100
HDL shape:
disk shape
The major protein of HDL:
the major protein of HDL is apo A
During fasting, Insulin
insulin↓ during fasting
During fasting, Glucagon
glucagon ↑ during fasting.
Fatty acids are transported in the blood complexed with______ ?
F.A's travel with albumin in the blood.
F.A's are converted to _______ _______, and glycerol is converted to glucose. (In the LIVER)
______ are converted to Ketone Bodies in the _____?
During fasting glucagon levels ↑, stimulating_______?
↑in glucagon stimulates lipolysis.
F.A's are oxidized by:
Beta oxidation
Fatty acyl CoA (activated long chain of F.A's) are transported into mitochondria by:
transported by the Carnitine Carrier System
Glycerol is used by the liver as a source of carbons for ______ which produces _____ for the_____ &_______.
source of carbons for GLUCOGENSIS:produces GLUCOSE for the BRAIN & RBCs.
Long chain fatty acids are activated by___ & ______ forming__________.
ATP
COENZYME A
FATTY ACYL CoA
Short fatty acid chains are activated in the_______?
activated in the MITOCHONDRIA.
What is generated from the products of Beta oxidation?
Energy is generated from B oxidation
Acetoacetate & B hydroxybutyrate are synthesized mainly in the?
liver mitochondria whenever F.A levels are high in the blood.
Fatty acids generate ATP when they are _________ & converted to acetyl CoA
when F.As are activated
Acetyl CoA reacts w/acetoacetyl CoA to form _____ which is cleaved to form _______________?
HMG CoA
Acetoacetate
Acetoacetate can be reduced to a 2nd ketone body (______)by NADH.
to form 3 hydroxybutyrate (B hydroxybutyate)