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50 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
What is required of the nine essential AAs?
They have to be taken in through the diet.
What is meant by the term 'Protein Turnover'?
It is the recycling of AAs (some of which can be stored).
What is meant by a 'Postive Status of Nitrogen Balance'?
The body consumes and synthesizes more proteins than it degrades. (This is OK for growing infants and children, pregnant women, and recovering patients such as burn victims)
What is meant by a 'Negative status of nitrogen balance'?
The body degrades more protein than it synthesizes and consumes (we can expect this under severe starvation and stress...typically not a healthy situation).
Do most people in the US and Canada consume enough protein?
Yes, most consume enough or more protein than we need. This means we secrete AAs that we don't need.
What is a limiting AA?
An essential AA. It is a concern when food is scarce that we are not getting enough of these.
What is a complete protein?
A protein that contains all the essential AAs in needed amounts (esp. animal protein).
Plant proteins are often ? and ?.
They are often more diverse and incomplete in the AAs they contain. They are often missing 1 or more of the AAs we need.
What is the most complete of the plant proteins?
Soy, but it is not complete.
What AAs do legumes contain?
Isoleucine and Lysine.
What AAs do grains contain?
Methionine and Tryptophan.
What is the diet strategy for vegetarians?
Mutual supplementation with complementary proteins.
What is a 'High Quality' protein?
One that is digestible enough to provide adequate amounts of ALL THE AAs REQUIRED for protein synthesis.
What percentage of Animal Protein is High Quality?
90-99% of animal protein is high quality.
What percentage of Plant protein is High Quality? What is this partly due to?
Only 70-90% of plant protein is high quality. This is due in part to digestion resistant cell walls.
What is required on food labels regarding protein?
They must show the amount of proteins in grams. The %DV ONLY needs to be shown if a "protein claim" is made, OR ir the food is intended for children under 4 years of age.
What is PEM?
Protein-Energy Malnutrition. It is a result of inadequate protein or energy intake. It is usually seen in other countries and afflicts >500 million children (its primary victims).
How many children die from malnutrition a year?
PEM can be ? or ?.
PEM can be acute (recent, severe deprivation) or chronic (long-term).
What is another term for chronic PEM? Explain it.
Marasmus (greek for "dying away"). It takes a longer time to set in than acute PEM. It is a severe deprivation of energy and protein over an extended period of time. It is most common in children 6-18 months of age and begins shortly after birth.
What is another term for acute PEM? Describe it.
Kwashiorkor. It develops from protein deficiency or illness. It begins later in life than chronic PEM. It is most common in children 18-24+ months of age. May see swollen face and limbs (edema) and an enlarge liver.
What is edema?
An accumulation of H2O.
Why might you see an enlarged liver in someone with acute PEM?
You may see an enlarged liver because it is the job of some proteins to carry away fat. So decreased protein can lead to increased fat.
Can a person have both Marasmus and Kwashiorkor.
PEM leads to impaired ?, ?, and ?.
Impaired immune system, anemia, and infections (plus other problems).
Is rehabilitation from PEM possible?
Yes, if caught soon enough.
PEM is more likely in other countries. What is more likely in our country?
Excessive protein intake is more likely in our country.
Many of the adverse health effects of excessive protein intake are due to what?
They are due to the FATS (esp. saturated) associated with animal protein.
Name 5 possible health effects of excessive protein intake?
1. Heart disease

2. Cancer

3. Bone loss

4. Weight control

5. Kidney disease
How is heart disease related to excessive protein intake?
There is an increased risk associated with increased [homocysteine] (an AA), which may result from increased caffeine or decreased B-vitamins.
How is cancer related to excessive protein intake?
There is a correlation between increased intake of animal protein and cancer. This MAY be a cause/effect relationship.
How is bone loss related to excessive protein intake?
Without adequate Calcium intake, high protein intake may accelerate bone loss. This is because a high protein intake is related to Calcium excretion.
How is weight control related to excessive protein intake?
A high protein diet may also be high in fat. This is not a risk if the protein is not from an animal.
How is kidney disease related to excessive protein intake?
A high protein diet may require high nitrogen excretion, creating an added burden for the kidneys.
What is the recommended daily allowance of protein for an adult?
What is the protein RDA for an adult who is an endurance or power athlete (such as a marathon runner)?
It is 50% to 100% higher than that of a normal adult.
How much protein is consumed typically before you see the related health consequences?
Problems begin when you consume around double of the RDA.
What builds muscle? What doesn't?
Exercise, not protein supplements, builds muscle.
What is broken down first in exercise?
Carbohydrates are broken down before proteins.
AA supplements are generally not beneficial. Name the 2 exceptions to this rule?
1. Lysein may suppress herpes infections.

2. Tryptophan may help reduce pain and make it easier to sleep, but it has problems and in the past has been recalled by the FDA.
Name 7 populations who AA supplements are inappropriate for?
1. All women of childbearing age

2. Pregnant/lactating women

3. Infants, children, and adolescents

4. Elderly

5. Smokers

6. Anyone on a low-protein diet

7. Anyone with inborn AA metabolic problems

(So, most people should stay away from supplement and should just adjust their diet if needed)
If you consume too many AA supplements what could you overtax?
You could over exert the kidneys.
Name 4 advantages of vegetarian diets?
1. Weight control (decreased fat/sat. fat)

2. Blood pressure control (low weight, low-fat, high fiber)

3. Decrease risk of coronary heart disease (low sat. fat)

4. Decreased risk of cancer (esp. colon cancer)
Name 6 things a vegetarian diet must include?
1. Protein

2. Iron

3. Zinc

4. Calcium

5. Vitamin B12

6. Vitamin D
What may vegetarians eat to ensure protein in their diet?
Milk and eggs (if in their diet), grains, legumes, seeds, nuts, and vegetables.

Most vegetarians do not have a problem consuming enough protein.
Why may iron be a concern in vegetarian diets?
Because it may be poorly absorbed from plant foods such as dark green leafy vegetables, legumes, and fortified cereal and grains. However, vitamin C helps absorption so it is usually not a problem.
Why may zinc be a concern in vegetarian diets?
Because it may be poorly absorbed from plant foods such as whole grains, nuts, and legumes. However, most vegetarians get an adequate amount it is just important that they have an adequate intake of these foods.
Why may calcium be a concern in vegetarian diets?
Because absorption may be limited. It helps to consume fortified juices and soy milk, legumes, broccoli, sesame seeds.
Why may vitamin B12 be a concern in vegetarian diets?
It is is found almost exclusively in animal-derived foods. However, there is only a very small RDA (in mcg not mg). Also can be found in fortified soy milk and cereals, supplements.
Why may vitamin D be a concern in vegetarian diets?
It is not too much of a problem because it is formed by exposure to the sun and is in many dairy products.