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46 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
____ is the major site of glucose biosynthesis and storage as ______.
liver, glycogen
Glucose is produced in the liver through _____ breakdown called _____.
glycogen, glycogenolysis
Glucose biosynthesis can occur with ____, ____, and ___, which is called ____.
lactate, amino acids, glycerol, gluconeogenesis
Glucose sources with it as its only building block are _____ and ____, while ____ and ____ also have another monosacharide, and indirectly by converting _____ and ______.
starch, glycogen, sucrose, lactose, galactose, fructose
Because glucose is not easily stored it is converted into _____, which is most plentiful in ____ and ____ cells.
liver, muscle
Glucose enters the cell through _____ or _____ in the small intestine and renal tubular cells.
Facilitated diffusion, active symport with sodium
In glycolysis, glucose is first converted into _____ by ______ or _____, because ______.
glucose-6-phosphate, hexokinase, glucokinase, G6P can not be transported across the cell membrane
In the formation of G6P a _____ is cleaved, while a ____ is formed., and ____ is a metal ion needed as a cofactor.
phosphate from ATP, low energy phosphoester, magnesium
G6P is a negative effector of _____, but not _____.
hexokinase, glucokinase
The formation of G6P by hexokinase is usually _____, because of the higher concentration of ____ to ____ in the cell.
Irreversible, ATP, ADP
Glucose 6 phosphate can be converted in the heart and muscle into ____, _____, or ____, and as well as ____ in the liver parenchymal cells.
glycogen, pyruvate, pentose phosphates, glucuronides
In glycolysis, glucose 6 phosphate is converted to fructose 6-phosphate by ______, which is a _____ reaction.
phosphoglucose isomerase, freely reversible
The rate limiting and committed step of glycolysis is the conversion of _____ to _____ by _______.
fructose 6- phosphate, fructose 1,6 biphosphate, phosphofructokinase-1 (PFK-1)
ATP is required in glycolysis during the conversion of Glucose to ______ by ______ and in the conversion of fructose 6- phosphate to _____ by _____.
G6P, hexokinase, fructose 1,6 biphosphate, PFK-1
The 3 irreversible reaction enzymes in glycolysis are ____.
hexokinase, PFK-1, and pyruvate kinase
PFK-1 ‘s energy controls are ______ by ATP and ______ by ADP and AMP.
inhibition, stimulation
PFK-1 is inhibited by ____ pH from the formation of _____ and ____ acids during _____.
low, pyruvic, lactic, acidosis
PFK-1 is inhibited by _____, which is a mitochondria metabolite, signaling an abundance of metabolic and energy intermediates.
The hormonal control of PFK- 1 is _____ by _____ and ____ by ____ in the liver.
stimulation, insulin, inhibition, glucagons
Hormone regulation in glycolysis occurs by glucgon _____ cAMP, which inhibits ______ which inhibits ____ which further inhibits the formation of _____ which is an allosteric activator of PFK-1.
stimulation, protein kinase A(PKA) , PFK-2, Fructose 2,6- biphosphate
Hormone regulation in glycolysis occurs by insulin inhibition of ______ so that _____ is not stimulated, but instead _____ is stimulated to produce fructose 2,6-biphosphate which is an allosteric activator of ____.
cAMP, Protein kinase, PFK-2
Fructose 1,6-biphosphate is converted by _____ to ______ and ______, which can interconvert by _______.
Aldolase, dihydroxyacetone phosphate, glyceraldehydes 3-phosphate, triose phosphate ismoerase
Dihyroxyacetone phosphate and glyceraldehydes 3-phosphate are ___ carbon _____ that convert into ____ and _____ to continue in energy yielding reactions.
3, isomers, glycerol- phosphate triglycerides, 1,3 biphosphglycerate
Each glyceraldehydes 3-phosphate plus ____ and ____ with ______ as the enzyme, produce 1,3 BPG and one ____.
NAD+, Pi, G3P dehydrogenase, NADH
Arsenate is an inhibiting competitor of _____ in the reaction of G3P into ____ and one NADH.
Pi, 1,3 BPG
____ is converted with _____ to form 1,3 BPG which can be substrate phosphorylated to _____ and one ATP of converted to _____ in erythrocytes.
G3P, G3P dehydrogenase, 3-phosphglycerate
Each 1,3 BPG plus one ____ with ______ produce ____ and the first ATP from glycolysis.
ADP, phosphoglycerate kinase, 3- phosphoglycerate
Magnesium is used as a cofactor in the glycolysis enzymes _____, _____, _____, _____, and ____.
hexokinase, PFK-1, phosphoglycerate mutase, enolase, pyruvate kinase
In glycolysis, ATP is produced in _____ and ____, NADH is produced in ____ and ATP is used in _____ and _____.
phosphoglycerate kinase, pyruvate kinase, G3P dehydrogenase, hexokinase and PFK-1
3-phosphoglycerate is converted into _____ by _______ and magnesium as a cofactor.
2-phosphoglycerate, phosphglycerate mutase
2- phosphoglycerate is converted into _______ and water by _____ and magnesium as a cofactor.
Phosphoenolpyruvate plus ADP produce _____ and ATP, with _____ and magnesium and K+ as cofactors.
Pyruvate, pyruvate kinase
The conversion of 2-phosphoglycerate to phosphoenolpyruvate and water by _____ and magnesium is inhibited clinically by ____ so not to produce lactate.
enolase, fluoride
Pyruvate kinase is inhibited by ____ and indirectly by ____, but activated by ____.
glucagon, ATP, fructose 1,6 Biphosphate
In anaerobic conditions, pyruvate is converted to _____ by _____ to produce needed _____ for the _____ reaction.
lactate, lactate dehydrogenase, NAD+, G3p dehydrogenase reaction
Pyruvate is converted into lactate in ____ and ____, or during ____.
erythrocites, skeletal muscle during vigorous contraction, hypoxia
Lactose tends to cause ____, and so must be transported to aerobic tissue where it is _____.
acidosis, converted back to pyruvate or to glucose
_____ is the only metabolic substrate that can produce ATP under anaerobic conditions.
Lactic acidosis occurs most commonly due to ____, ____, and ____.
respiratory failure, impaired oxygen transport, impaired oxidative phosphorylation
During lactic acidosis ____ decreases,_____ becomes activated, and a large amount of _____ forms which is converted into lactate.
ATP, PFK-1, pyruvate
A rare hemolytic anemia caused by partial deficiencies of ______.
Pyruvate kinase deficiency
Arsenate competes with ____ as a substrate in the G3P dehydrogenase reaction that produces an arsenate product that can not produce ____ in its reaction with phosphoglycerate kinase.
substrate level phosphorylation (0 NET ATP from glycolysis)
In the ____, pyruvate plus NAD+ plus ______ yield _____, NADH, and ____, using _____ as an enzyme.
lumen of the mitochondria, CoA-SH, Acetyl-CoA, Carbon dioxide, pyruvate dehydrogenase
Lactic acidosis can occur by an enzymatic defect that prevents the utilization of pyruvate in _____ and _____.
mitochondrial oxidation, gluconeogenesis
Pyruvate carboxylase can convert Pyruvate into _____.
Pyruvate oxidative carboxylation is catalyzed by _____, which is composed of E1 that contains ____ as a prosthetic group, E2 containing ____ bound to an Lys side chain, and E3 a_____.
pyruvate dehydrogenase, thiamine PP, lipoic acid, FAD- containing flavoprotein