Study your flashcards anywhere!

Download the official Cram app for free >

  • Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
Reading...
Front

How to study your flashcards.

Right/Left arrow keys: Navigate between flashcards.right arrow keyleft arrow key

Up/Down arrow keys: Flip the card between the front and back.down keyup key

H key: Show hint (3rd side).h key

A key: Read text to speech.a key

image

Play button

image

Play button

image

Progress

1/56

Click to flip

56 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
what are two main steps in protein synthesis?
transcription and translation
Durring which of the two main steps in protein synthesis is mRNA constructed?
transcription
which of the two main steps in protein synthesis occurs in the nucleus?
transcription
a protein and a polypeptide chain always refer to the same thing? true or false
false
ploypeptide chains are constructed on ribosomes. in what two places in the cell can ribosomes be found
-free floating within the cell
-attached to the outside of the RER
where are lipids made
SER
one gene codes for what?
one polypeptide chain
in what cellular organelle is the energy from nutients converted into energy that can be used by the cell to do work?
mitochondria
what is the name for three nitroogenous bases on mRNA that are "read" together?
codon
what two things are carried on the tRNA molecule?
-mRNA
-anticodon
what are the three types of chemical bonds with which you should aready be familiar ?
-covalent
-ionic
-hydrogen
which of the three type of chemical bonds is the strongest?
covalent
list the three subatomis particles and their charges
-protons +
-neutrons = neutral
-electrons -
which of the three subatomic particles is involved in the formation of chemical bonds?
Electrons (-)
list the functions of proteins
-P-protection
-R-regulation of acid base balance
-E-energy production
-S-storage
-S-structural and mechanical support
-R-regulation
-E-enzymatic catalysis
-G-growth and repair
-C-communication
-T-transportation
-C-coordinated movement
-antibodies
-fibrinogen
-thrombin
are examples of which protein function?
Protection
proteins are an example of which protein function?
energy production
-collagen
-keratin
are examples of which protein function?
structural and mechanical support
enzymes are an example of which protein function?
Enzymatic Catalysis
-actin
-myosin
are examples of which protein function?
coordinated movement
buffers are examples of which protein function?
regulation of acid base balance
Lipoproteins are examples of which protein function?
transportation
repressor proteins are examples of which protein function?
Growth and repair
iron + APOFERRITIN= Ferritin <now able to be stored in the liver. APOFERRITIN is an example of which protein function?
storage
neurotransmitters are examples of which protein function?
communication
-insulin
-glucagon
are examples of which protein function?
Regulation
what is the name of the chemical process in which amino acids are joined together?
dehydration synthesis
what is the mame of the chemical process in which the bond between amino acids is broken?
Hydrolysis
what determines the sequence of amino acids in a polypeptide chain? Be Specific!!
1 strand of DNA / 1 gene
what molecule is removed in dehydration synthesis and what molecule is added in hydrolysis
water
what cellular organelle protects the cell from the outside environment?
plasme membrane
-contains DNA
-"brain" of the cell
nucleus
makes ribosomes
nucleolus
Endoplasmic Reticulum ER is made up of two parts
-RER
-SER
contains enzymes that perform specializedtasks like lipid synthesis.
SER
carry proteins and lipids to the organelles or cell membrane. ribosomes are attached to this organelle also.
RER
digestive system of the cell-enzymes digest food particles
Lysosome
-power house of the cell
energy contained by food is released here
mitochondria
make proteins for protein synthesis
ribosomes
transcription takes place in the cell nucleus- mRNA leaves and travels to the ribosomes. then translation occurs. what process is this
protein synthesis
aka: dehydration synthesis
anabolism
a substance that can act as an acid or a base to buffer a solution, make it less acidic or less basic.
Amphoteric substance
a compound that changes pH slowlyin responce to the addition of strong acid or base
buffer
all amino acids exist in sterioisomeric form
false
when an amino acid has equal negative charges and positive charges-giving it a net zero charge, it is charged but neutral, it is said to be in what form
Zwitterion form
the range of pH values for physiological pH
7.35-7.45
the point at which the zwitterion form forms
isoelectric point
which steriosomer form of amino acids does the human body utilize
the LLLLLLLLLLLLL form
the body LLLLLLikes the L form
what is required for a protein to posess Quaternary structure?
more than 1 polypeptide chain
give the example of a protein with Quaternary structure
-myoglobin
or
-hemoglobin
what bonds are associated with the quaternary level of protein structure?
-hydrogen bonds
-electrostatic bonds
-hydrophobic interactions
-disulfide bonds
what is the process of which the 3-d structureof a protein is destroyed
denaturation
what are three denaturing agents
-alcohol
-heat
-urea
which type of denaturation occurs under slow mild conditions in which proteins may recover by reversing the condition that caused denaturation
reversable denaturation
which type of denaturation cannot be reversed. it is a done deal. its 3-d structure is destroyed and cannot be recovered. EX: fried egg
irreversable denaturation
what are three ways in which proteins can be classified.
-shape
-function
-composition