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30 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
Is the size of the DNA genome reflective of how advanced the organisms is?
NO
DNA polymerase take off how many phosphates of the nucleotides, as DNA is synthesized?
phosphates are taken, nucleotides are added in monophosphate form.
3) What is the charge inside of a DNA molecule?
The inside is hydrophobic, therefore is not charged.
4) What is the charge on the outside of a DNA molecule?
The outside of DNA is negatively charged.
5) The charge of DNA, helps the molecules overall?
Stability
6) What is the importance of the major and minor grooves?
Interior bases are exposed, thus, DNA binding proteins can recognize w/o unfolding DNA.
7) Phosphodiester and N-glycosidic bonding are considered what type of bonding?
Covalent bonding.
8) Base stacking, and Hydrogen bonding are considered what type of bonding?
Non-covalent bonding
9) What is Tm?
The melting temperature of a DNA molecule, in which 50% is melted and 50% is bonded.
10) What happened to a DNA molecule in a low salt concentration? And in a high salt concentration?
In a low [NaCl], DNA falls apart easier. In a high [NaCl], DNA sticks together.
11) Is DNA viscous?
Yes
12) Do bases like absorbing light?
Yes
13) As DNA denatures does its light absorption increase or decrease?
It increases, because increasing temperature denatures DNA into a single strand, thus more base absorption of light.
14) What does annealing mean?
The reverse of denaturation
15) In supercoiled (phone cord) DNA do you have (+) and (-) twists?
Yes
16) What is the function of topoisomerase I (Swivelase)?
It removes supercoils, by making a single cut, which is then re-ligated.
17) What is the function of topoisomerase II (a.k.a. DNA Gyrase)?
It produces and removes supercoils, it requires ATP.
18) Do (-) supertwists unwind easier or harder?
Easier.
19) Drugs for cancer and antibiotics target?
Inhibition of DNA gyrases.
20) High Temperature and High salt concentration can do what to DNA?
Split it.
21) What enzyme in cells perform the function of high temperature and high salt concentration?
DNA helicase
22) How many origins of replication does bacterial DNA have?
1
23) How many origins of replication does eukaryotes have?
They have multiple replicons.
24) What enzyme is required to complete synthesis of ends of linear chromosomes?
Telomerase.
25) What do ssDNA binding proteins do?
They prevent DNA from closing
26) What do the following protein do: Topoisomerase II (gyrase), Helicase (DnaB), DnaA, Dam Methylase, DnaC, HU, Primase (DnaG), SSB proteins, DNA ligase?
They are needed for DNA replication.
28) What are nucleases?
Enzymes that cleave phosphodiester bonds in nucleic acids.
29) Exonuclease cut from?
The end.
30) Endonuclease cut from?
The middle.
31) What is the function of lygase?
To glue down.