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56 Cards in this Set

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What is folate used for?
To minimize the risk of neural tube defects.
What is the recommended amt of folate for times when pregnancy is possible?
400mcg/day
What is the recommended amt of folate during pregnancy?
600mcg/day
How much folate do most supplements have?
800mcg/day or more
What is the UL for folate?
1000mcg/day (may mask B12 deficiencies) (some women however may be advised to take significantly more)
Being underwt during pregnancy increases the risk of what?
A low-birthweight baby. Pregnancy is not the time to lose wt.
What is a risk associated with being overwt while pregnant?
It increases the risk of medical complications. May mask pregnancy.
What is the recommended wt gain for a women who is underwt that becomes pregnant in the 1st trimester? The 2nd trimester? Total?
5 lb in 1st trimester. 1+ lb/wk in the 2nd trimester. Total of 28-40 lb.
What is the recommended wt gain for a women who is normal wt that becomes pregnant in the 1st trimester? The 2nd trimester? Total?
3 1/2 lb in 1st trimester. 1- lb/wk in the 2nd trimester. 25-35 lbs total.
What is the recommended wt gain for a women who is overwt that becomes pregnant in the 1st trimester? The 2nd trimester? Total?
2 lbs in the first trimester. ~2/3lb/wk in 2nd trimester. 15-25 lbs total.
Energy intake should be increased by how much during pregnancy?
300kcal/day (preferably nutrient dense)
Protein RDA increases how much during pregnancy?
RDA increases by 10g/day (this is usually exceeded, so supplements are usually not needed)
What is recommended of fat intake in pregnant women?
Essential FAs are essential (Seafood is highly recommended).
During pregnancy there is an increased synthesis of what?
DNA and RNA, Cell growth, and blood production.
To support increased DNA and RNA, Cell growth, and blood production what must be taken during pregnancy?
1. Folate

2. Vit. B12

3. Iron

4. Zinc
During pregnancy what does the RDA of Iron increase by?
It increases from 18 to 27 mg/day, supplements are appropriate, 2nd and 3rd trimester.
What should be taken to support bone development during pregnancy?
1. Vitamin D

2. Calcium
How many kcal/day are needed to produce milk? Where should it come from?
You need ~500-600 kcal/day. This energy should come from Fat reserves (200kcal/day) and increased intake (300-400kcal/day)
An adequate milk supply depends upon what?
Adequate nutrient intake. If intake is inadequate, the qty rather than the quality will decrease.
List 4 ways to alleviate nausea during pregnancy?
1. Dry toast and crackers

2. Chew gum or suck hard candy

3. Eat small, frequent meals

4. When nauseated, avoid citrus juice, water, milk, coffee, tea.
List 4 ways to prevent/alleviate constipation in pregnant women.
1. Eat food high in fiber (fruits, veggies, whole grain cereal and bread)

2. Exercise regularly

3. Drink plenty of liquids, esp. water

4. Use laxatives if prescribed
What laxative should not be used during pregnancy?
Mineral oil, because it interferes with the absorption of fat-soluble vitamins.
List 8 ways to prevent/alleviate heartburn in pregnant women?
1. Eat slowly

2. Chew food thoroughly

3. Eat small, frequent meals

4. Drink plenty of liquids

5. Avoid spicy or greasy foods

6. Sit up while eating

7. Don't lie down immediately after eating

8. Don't exercise immediately after eating
In infancy what is the best source of nutrients?
Mother's milk

(see slides 13-14)
List 3 nutrients in breast milk.
1. Lactose

2. Lipids

3. Protein
What are the benefits of lactose in breast milk?
Easily digested, aids in Ca absorption.
Describe the lipids found in breast milk?
1. Includes essential FAs and derivatives, such as DHA (which is not found in older formulas)

2. Does not contain linoleate or linolenate
Describe the protein in breast milk?
It is less than in cow's milk, which lowers the burden on the kidney.
What vitamins are found in breast milk?
There is enough of all the vitamins except for D and possibly K.
The American Academy of Pediatrics recommends a single dose of what at birth?
Vit. K
What minerals are present in breast milk?
There is an Ok amount of Ca, Zn, and Na.

There may be too low a concentration of Fe and F
How does breast milk aid in immunological protection?
Especially in the colostrum. 1st 2-3 days of nursing; contains serum with Abs and wbcs.
A breast fed infant between the ages of 0-6 months should be given what supplement?
Vit. D (if little exposure to the sun or dark-skinned)
A breast fed infant between the ages of 6-12 months should be given what supplements?
Vit D, iron, and F
A formula fed infant between 6-12 months should be given what supplements?
Iron and F
When do solid foods typically start for an infant?
Begin around 4-6 months.
When is cow's milk recommended for infants? Why?
It is not recommended before about 12 months. Earlier may cause intestinal bleeding. It is a poor source of iron. It is high in Ca and low in Vit C (poor Fe absorption)
In chilhood is is important to develop ?.
Good eating habits
In childhood it is important to guard agains ?.
Obesity (by proper nutrition and exercise)
? and ? should be encourage in childhood.
Physical activity and healthy snacks.
The energy needs of children are generally what?
Very high, but vary depending on the level of physcial activity. (eg, 2000-4000kcal/day)
What is reqd for skeletal growth?
Vit D and Calcium
What is reqd for girls post puberty?
Iron
It is important for older adults to make sure they have plenty of this?
Water (or water-containing drinks without diuretics)
What can be said about energy in older adults?
Energy needs decline, but appetite usually declines also. Need to select nutrient dense foods.
At what age does the prevalence of overwt individuals begin to decline?
Past the age of 55
Protein is important in older adults but should come from where?
Low-fat sources
Why are carbs (including fiber) important in older adults?
1. To minimize protein loss

2. Often includes vitamins and minerals

3. Fiber especially helpful in preventing constipation
How should fats be handled in older adults?
Should be limited but not severely (bc need to avoid wt loss)
You also should include ?,?, and ? products in the diet of older adults.
Fruits, veggies, and dairy
Name 4 things that need to be give special attn in older adults.
1. Vitamin B12

2. Vit D

3. Calcium

4. Iron
Why is B12 important for older adults?
Because of increasing prevalence of atrophic gastritis
Why is vit D important for older adults?
for bones, because of less exposure to the sun, and less dairy intake
Why is calcium important for older adults?
to prevent osteoporosis
Why is iron important for older adults?
This is esp. true if food intake is low, and because disease or meds may lead to loss, or antacids may reduce absorption.
Food are better than ?, but ? is better than ?.
Foods are better than supplements, but supplements are better than deficiencies.