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61 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
To maintain your current body wt what must occur?
Calories-in = Calories-out
1 pound of body fat ~ how many calories?
~ 3500kcal
How many calories a day would have to be eaten for you to gain a pound in a week?
500 extra kcal a day.
For successful wt loss, you need to lose pounds at a reasonable rate. How many pounds is this a week? How many Kcal/week and kcal/day?
1/2-2 lb/week


If you gain or lose wt at a normal rate (see last card) then what percentage of it is fat? What percentage is lean mass?
75% is fat. 25% is lean mass.
If you lose weight at an accelerated rate the initial loss may be largely what? After the initial loss what percent of the wt loss is fat and what percent is lean mass?
The initial loss may be largely water. Then 50% is fat adn 50% is lean mass (which is protein metabolized to yield glucose).
If you deplete glycogen and circulating glucose what will happen?
The brain still needs glucose so you will begin to break down protein so glucose can be synthesized.
What are three consequences of wt loss that is too rapid?
1. May lose much lean tissue

2. May not take in enough nutrients

3. Large/rapid loss often followed by (big) gain
What is the body's response if you restrict food intake for days?
Decreased hunger
What is the body's response if your food intake is excessive?
Eventually more food will be required to feel full.
What is satiation?
A decrease in hunger
What is satiety?
An absence of hunger
What kind of nutrition is the most satiating?
What is the second best after protein for satiation?
Carbodydrates (Complex carbs and fiber are the best; better than refined sugar)
What is the least satiating food product?
Fat (however it is the most flavorful and most energy dense)
What percentage of food energy is used for metabolism?
60-65% (so greater than 1/2 to 2/3s)
What is basal metabolism?
Maintain body temp, breathing, form new cells, maintain heartbeat, etc.
What is BMR?
Basal metabolic rate
What percentage of food energy is used for physical activities (voluntary)?
25 - 30%
What is the thermic effect of food?
Used to account for the last 10% of food energy used by the body. Body's increased physical activity generates heat. (He believes this is kind of a fudge factor for nutritionists). Includes things like sweating.
List 10 factors that affect the BMR?
1. Age

2. Height

3. Weight

4. Growing

5. Body composition

6. Fever/stress/temp extremes

7. Fasting/starvation/malnutrition

8. smoking

9. caffeine

10. sleep
How does Age relate to BMR?
The older you are the slower the BMR.
How does ht relate to BMR?
Tall/thin = higher BMR
How does wt relate to BMR?
heavier = higher BMR (but not proportional)
How does growing relate to BMR?
Children and pregnant women = higher BMR
How does Body composition relate to BMR?
More lean = higher BMR

More fat = lower BMR
How do fever/stress/temp extremes relate to BMR?
All result in higher BMR
How does fasting/starvation/malnutrition relate to BMR?
All result in a lower BMR
How does smoking relate to BMR?
Nicotine increases energy expenditure.
How does caffeine affect BMR?
Caffeine increases energy expediture.
How does sleep affect BMR?
BMR is slowest when sleeping.
How do pharmacist commonly estimate BMR?
By using the Harris-Benedict equation.

This eqn reinforces that a person with higher wt has a higher BMR and a taller ht has a higher BMR and that increased age has a lower BMR.
Physical activity is ? ? between individuals?
Highly variable. Depends on wt and level of activity.
The thermic effect of food refers to what?
The 10% of food energy not used by BMR or physical activities. Includes heat-producing activities. It is small and can be difficult to estimate.
What is adaptive thermogenesis?
Energy expended in temp extremes. It is extremely variable. It is usually not included in calculation of energy reqts. It's usually applicable in a colder environment.
If you do an accurate personal diet analysis, and your wt is relatively stable, what does it indicate?
It indicates that your energy use is approx the same as your energy intake (kcal). (you have to keep track of everything you eat for three days)
How is ideal body wt figured out?
Wt appropriate for ht. or use Body Mass Index (BMI)
How do you figure out BMI?
BMI = wt/height^2

BMI = (kg)/(m^2)

(any problems he would give would have the values in kg and m)
List the 4 different BMI ranges?
1. Underweight: < 18.5

2. Healthy: 18.5-24.9

3. Overweight: 25.0-29.9

4. Obese: > or = to 30
There is an obesity ?.
What do the 2005 Dietary Guidelines for Americans state about obesity?
"A high prevalence of overweight and obesity is of great public health concern because excess body fat leads to a higher risk for a number of consequences"

(however there is more to the story, ie. "the new dissenters")
The problem is not just obesity but what else?
There are different levels of obesity.
The ? or overweight and obesity is clearly ?. This is also correlated with an increase in ?.
The prevalence or overwt and obesity is clearly increasing. This is related to an increase in the prevalence of Type-2 diabetes.
Obesity and Type-2 diabetes is increasing what diseases are decreasing?
HD and cerebrovascular disease (stroke) is decreasing. So obesity may not be the whole story behind these diseases.
Weight related annual mortality in overwt individuals and moderate/severe obesity?
See slide 22. Overwt individuals have a low annual mortality (lower than underwt and mild obesity). Moderate/severe obesity has a greater amt of weight-related annual mortality.
Moderate/severe obesity ? a problem, mild obesity ? be a problem for some, overwt story is ? ?.
Moderate/severe obesity is a problem, mild obesity may be a problem for some, overwt story is more complex.
There is a clearer connection between ? and the development of ?.
There is a clearer connection between obesity and the development of type-2 diabetes. (cause and effect relationship is not clear)
What are greater risk factors than overwt and mild-moderate obesity?
Poor diet and inactivity.
Weight is not the only important number: what else is important?
Body composition (how much fat?)

Some people need more fat (pregnancy) some need less (athletes)
What is the most problematic distribution of fat?
Cental obesity (abdomen)
Central obesity is a risk factor, independent of ? ?.
Central obesity is a risk factor, independent of total fat.
What are the measurements of central obesity for women and men?
Women: waist > 35 inches

Men: waist > 40 inches
IBW may be affected by the presence or absence of what?
Risk factors.
Underweight people have a BMI of what?
< 18.5
Underwt is esp a health risk it is associated with what?
Malnutrition, smoking, and/or illness.
List 5 health risks associated with wt and fat?
(BMI > or = to 30)

1. Diabetes (type 2)

2. Cardio disease

3. Some cancers ("fuzzy")

4. HTN

5. Respiratory problems
Type 2 diabetes is ?x more likely to develop in obese people.
3x more likely (especially in central obesity that has insulin resistant fat cells)
Obesity seems to lead to ? resistance.
Insulin resistance
What kinds of wt gains increase risks?
1. Weight gain > 20lbs, even in non-obese people

2. yo-yoing
What dose wt loss do to type 2 diabetes risk?
Lowers the risk (if moderate and sustained)
What might the connection be between cancer and wt?
Elevated hormone levels lead to cancer development. (Adipose tissue is a major site of estrogen synthesis)