Study your flashcards anywhere!

Download the official Cram app for free >

  • Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off

How to study your flashcards.

Right/Left arrow keys: Navigate between flashcards.right arrow keyleft arrow key

Up/Down arrow keys: Flip the card between the front and back.down keyup key

H key: Show hint (3rd side).h key

A key: Read text to speech.a key


Play button


Play button




Click to flip

31 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Sum total of all chemical reactions going on in a cell.
Any chemical compound that is a
starting material
intermediate or
product of metabolism
metabolic pathway
A series of reactions that can be written to organize some chemical reactions with a recognizable or important starting material and end with a common or recognizable product.
Building big things from smaller things.
Breaking down big things into smaller things.
Gibbs free energy
Combined forms of energy - potential and kinetic. Changes in the free energy allow us to predict if the reaction will occur spontaneously.

(delta G = Gproducts - Greactants) negative = exergonic; positive = endergonic
Free energy of products is lower than reactants, energy is liberated and the reaction will proceed spontaneously.
The free energy of the products is higher than the reactants, and will not occur spontaneously. Requires the input of energy in some form.
Adenosine triphosphate, the major end product of energy metabolism.
high-energy compound
Store a lot of energy in the chemical bonds between the phosphate groups.
activation energy
An energy barrier that must be surmounted for a reaction to occur.

high = slow
low = fast
oxidation-reduction reaction

A reaction that results in the exchange of electrons between reactants.
The giving-off of electrons
The gaining of electrons.
In biological systems this is the molecule that is nearly always the one reduced in a redox reaction.
In biological systems this is the other molecule that is sometimes the one reduced in a redox reaction.
Reduced compounds that represent energy in the bank as stored electrons. Redeemable as ATP a little farther on down the line.
Chemicals that enhance the rate of a chemical reaction by participating in the reaction, but are themselves unchanged when reaction is complete.

Lower activation energy of the reaction.
Biological catalysts (proteins) that lower the activation energy of a chemical reaction, but remain unchanged after a reaction is complete.

Speed things up billions or trillions of times.
The reactant in a chemical reaction involving enzymes.
free energy change
Delta G

Changes in free energy of reactants and products allow us to predict if a reaction will occur spontaneously.
negative free energy change
exergonic, possibly spontaneous, reaction
positive free energy change
endergonic, not spontaneous, reaction, that requires input of energy to happen
active site
A specific (relatively small) site on the enzymes where the chemical reaction takes place.
A small molecule that prevents proper enzyme action.
competitive inhibition
A small molecule resembling a substrate binds at the active site of an enzyme and does not allow the normal reaction to take place.
allosteric regulation
Refers to the ability of a metabolite to bind to an enzyme at a site other than the active site, change the shape and activity of the enzyme.

Inhibiting and enhancing.
covalent regulation
Similar to allosteric except enzyme is modified covalently by the attachment of another molecule to the enzyme. Many times, phosphate.

Activating and inhibiting.
committed step
An energetically irreversible step in a multi-step pathway. Once this step is complete the material is committed to traverse the pathway to the end product.
feedback inhibition
In steps A -> G, G is the allosteric inhibitor of A.
biochemical compartmentalization
Partitioning biochemical pathways to certain organelles.