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34 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
fatty acid
- use
- composition
- characteristic
- number of C
- used for energy storage

- composed of long chains of methyl groups with a carboxylic acid fxnl group at one end.

- always have a straight chain of methyl groups

- even number of C, usually 16-18
long chain fatty acid
16-20 carbons
medium chain fatty acid
10-15 carbons
short chain fatty acids
4-10 carbons
When the carbon chain has no double bonds in it - C are saturated with H.
a fatty acid chain with one or more double bonds between C - not saturated with H.
fatty acids with two or more double bonds
nomenclature for fatty acids
# of C : # of double bonds (saturation state)
omega carbon
The methyl group at the end of the carbon chain. Counting C for the position # of double bonds starts here.
globs of fat with ionized (hydrophilic) ends facing water and hydrophobic tails all dissolved with one another.
Glycerol containing a single esterified fatty acid.
Formed when the carboxyl groups of fatty acids join with the hydroxyl groups of glycerol to form ester linkages.
Has 3 hydroxyl groups, each may participate in an ester linkage with a fatty acid.
Formed when two fatty acids are esterfied on a glycerol.

- function
- location in humans; plants
Formed when three fatty acids are esterfied on a glycerol.

Any type of fatty acid may be attached at any of the OH positions of glycerol.

- energy storage form of lipids
- found in adipose tissue; seeds (oils!)

- oily or solid?
Performed with H gas under heat and pressure, saturating all the former double bonds with H.

- solid
partially hydrogenated

- why?
- what changes?
maintains oil-like consistency, but fewer double bonds to react with O (oxidate) and turn rancid.

- the cis double bonds become trans double bonds. Cause higher cholesterol levels, increase risk of HT disease

- structure
- function
- glycerol with phosphate group esterfied to the OH group at position #3 from the top. The two other OH are esterfied to fatty acids.
In short, a triglyceride - 1 fatty acid + phophate group
- lipids that compose major molecular body parts i.e. cell membrane
lipid bilayer membrane
Negatively charged phosphate heads and long hydrophobic tails line up - heads outside, tail in the middle.
transport proteins
Portals for molecule unable to pass through cell membrane.
steroid nucleus
the multiple C ring structure that is the base of the family of lipids called steroids. Very hydrophobic.
Major steroid in animals.
- Hydrophobic, rigid, essential to membranes. Adds stability to overall structure.
cholesteryl ester
Cholesterol with a fatty acid esterfied to the OH group. Prevelant in circulation forms of cholesterol.
bile acids
Derived from cholesterol. Emulsify dietary lipids.
Made in LV, delievered to SI via bile duct. The only way to eliminate cholesterol from body.
Other steroids:
Sex: progesterone, testosterone, estrogen

Metabolic: cortisol (carb and lipid metabolism), mineralcorticoids (water & salt excretion by KD)
salivary lipase
Begins digestion of triglycerides in mouth by releasing the fatty acids at the first and last position of trigly, by hydrolyzing the ester bonds btwn fatty acid and glycerol.

Product = 2 fatty acids + one monoglyceride.
gastric lipase
Found in ST, continues to digest triglyceride in same manner as salivary lipase.
pancreatic lipase
Digest tryglys in SI after they are emulsified by bile salts. It's more efficient.
Bundles of tryglys with other lipid-soluable stuff. Travel from GI cells thru lymph system to blood system - no LV filter!
lipoprotein lipase
An enzyme that removes fatty acids from tryglycerides.
chylomicron remnant
After most of the tryglycerides are removed by the body tissues this is picked up by liver and metabolized.
essential fatty acids
linoleic acid and alpha-linolenic acid

Required intake so we can make arachidonic acid and eicosapentaenoic acid.
prostaglandin hormones
Made from essential fatty acids
arachidonic acid
Made from essential fatty acids, required to make prostaglandins, thromboxane and leukotrienes.