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19 Cards in this Set

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inter-organ cycle
When organs recycle the biproducts of other organs.

Ex: Cori cycle
Cori cycle
Lactate is released by muscles into the bloodstream. LV picks up lactate and converts it to glucose via gluconeogenesis.
insulin
Peptide metabolic hormone released in conditions of high blood glucose (and amino acid) levels. Post-meal, typically.

Origin: beta cells of Islets of Langerhans

Affects: muscle, adipose and LV tissues.
Effect: take up glucose from blood, store it as glycogen and triacylglycerols.
insulin receptor
A receptor on any cell that responds to insulin.
Islet of Langerhans
substructure of pancreas with cells of two types

alpha cells make glucagon
beta cells make insulin
alpha cells of Islets of Langerhans
produce glucagon
beta cells of Islets of Langerhans
produce insulin
peptide hormone
Hormone constructed of a peptide chain

Ex: insulin, 2 separate chains (51 amino acids) linked by disulfide bonds
tyrosine kinase
Enzyme on the part of an insulin receptor inside of cell. It attaches phosphate groups to other proteins.
insulin receptor substrate-1
Protein to which the tyrosine kinase attaches phosphate groups to begin cascade resulting in glycogen, fatty acid synthesis and more.
glucagon
Peptide metabolic hormone (29 amino acids) that is released under conditions of low blood glucose.

Affects: Liver and adipose

Effect: Release of glucose by Liver to increase blood glucose levels.
glucagon receptor
Receptor on cells that respond to glucagon
heterotrimeric-G-protein
A protein composed of alpha, beta and gamma subunits.
epinephrine
From adrenal medulla

Affects: Liver, muscles, adipose and more.
IDDM
insulin dependent diabetes mellitus - must inject insuling b/c beta cells don't make it
NIDDM
non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus - insulin is present, but cells lack receptors, don't take up glucose
ketosis
When tissues cannot utilize ketone bodies as fast as they are made.
acidosis
When blood pH is lowered by accumulated acids from fatty acid metabolism
ketoacidosis
ketosis + acidosis