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28 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
substances that liberate H+ ions when dissolved in water; pH less than 1 - 6.99
negatively charged ion
Atomic Mass
protons + neutrons
the smallest particle of an element that can exist either alone or in combination
substance that accepts H+ ions, removing them from the water solution. pH 7.1 - 14
positively charged ion
chemical bonds
forces that hold atoms together, formed by shared electrons
covalent bond
chemical bond formed by atoms sharing a pair of electrons
double bond
formed when atoms share two pairs of electrons
negatively charged particle of an atom that moves wildly around the nucleus at nearly the speed of light
over 100 fundamental substances that consist of atoms of one kind and that singly or in combination constitute all matter
heat of fusion
amount of heat energy required to be removed to form solid (ice)
heat of vaporization
amount of heat required to change to gas (vapor)
hybrid orbitals
formed in C,N and O when these elements form covalent bonds; form tetrahedral shape
hydrogen bonding
weak interactions between the partially positively charged H and partially negatively charged N or O
"water loving" molecule/compound that dissolve readily in water

Ex.: NaCl
"water hating" molecule/compound that do not dissolve in water

Ex.: fat
charged atom
ionic bonds
an attraction between oppositely charged particles that are near each other
atoms of an element with different numbers of neutrons in their nuclei; may be radioactive
two or more atoms, of the same or different elements, joined together
particle with no charge in the nucleus of an atom
a relatively defined space within an electron cloud where up to two electrons reside; several orbitals make up the quantum or energy level

pH scale
measure of acidity: 1/ log of H+ concentration

1 - 6.9 acid, 7.1 - 14 basic
polar molecules
molecules with partial positive and partial negative portions
positively charged particle in the nucleus of an atom
fxn of water's specific heat
water's high specific heat keeps the temperature of the water from fluctuating wildly with environmental changes
tetrahedral carbon
a carbon with orbitals equidistant from one another that point toward the corners of a tetrahedron