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14 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
Aspartate-glutamate transporter & Malate-alpha-ketoglutarate transporter found?
Inner mitochondrial matrix because it is impermeable to small molecules and maintains membrane potential.
In what conditions
(anerobic/aerobic) facilitates the conversion of pyruvate to acetyl-coA?
In aerobic, bc if in anerobic, need some pyruvate in the cytosol to be converted to lactate. Need to maintain NAD/NADH for glycolysis.
Pyruvate + NAD+ + CoA--->Acetyl-CoA + NADH+ CO2
This step is irreversible
Pyruvate Dehydrogenase (PDH)
ADP, Insulin turn pyruvate metabolism on/off?
Glucagon turns pyruvate metabolism on/off?
The fates of pyruvate
1. Lactate
2. Alanine for protein synthesis
3. OAA
4. Acetyl CoA
a. TCA cycle for ATP
b. Steroids
c. fat
Pyruvate Dehydrogenase (PDH) complex large because?
1. enhance rate of sequential reactions
2. minimize side reactions
3. stabilize against proteolysis (strengh in numbers)
4. permit coordinated regulation

Contains E1, E2 & E3, 5 cofactors
Cofactors of PDH
1. Coenzyme A
2. Thiamine Pyrophosphate (TPP)
3. NAD
4. FAD
5. Lipolic acid
Thiamine Pyrophosphate
Tightly bound to E1
Accepts 2 carbons from pyruvate and transfers them to make Acetyl CoA
Lipoic acid/lipoamide
-Covalently bound to E2
-Hook up with Lysine to get long arm, which reaches from E1, E2, and E3 to accommplish transfer.
-Inhibition by arsenic
Pyruvate + NAD+ HSCoA -->AcCoA + NADH +CO2 How?
1. PDH w/ 3 E + Cofactors bound
2. Decarboxylate pyruvate & transfer to TPP (E1)
3. Oxidation of alcohol and transfer to Lipolic acid on E2
4. Lipolic acid transfers 2 Carbons to Acetyl-CoA
5. Now have reduced S groups-must be oxidized on Lipolic acid
6. Transfer H to FAD-->FADH2 on E3
7. Don't want FADH2, but FAD and so therefore transfer H's to NAD--> NADH
Negative regulators of PDH
Direct: Inhibited by pds (Ac.CoA & NADH)
Indirect: Pds (Ac.CoA & NADH) active kinase which phosphorylates PDH--> inactive
Positive regulators of PDH
Direct: Signals of low energy (AMP, GDP)
Indirect: Pyruvate, CoASH, NAD which inhibit kinase-->PDH unphoshorylated-->active
Hormonal regulation
Insulin-high blood sugar activates PDH through phosphatase (unphosphorylate it)