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94 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
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The molecule that is the most important source of energy for biochemical reactions
ATP
They are letters
Compare the energy storage capability of glycogen and triglycerides with that of adensosine triphosphate (ATP)
Glycogen and triglycerides have BETTER energy storage than ATP.

ATP is not the best energy storage because it is quickly used up after being used. It is a good "energy packet"
Two energy STOARAGE forms that can be broken down to regenerate ATP
Glycogen and triglyceride
One makes you fat. The other was kinda mentioned on Gilligan's Island
Compare reducing and oxidizing agents
Reducing angents SUPPLIES hydrogen and electrona

Oxidizing agents RECEIVE hydrogens and electrons
Less will give

More will get
State the final energy change when several concurrent chemical reactions occur
Net energy LOSS
Stop thinking so negatively!
State the effect enzmes (in general) have on activation energy
It LOWERS the energy hill of activation
I think I can. I think I can. I think I can. If only I had a little help....
Entropy
The degree of disorder
Jon knows so much about this
RibozYmes
Special RNA molecules that catalyzes chemical reactions
Energy of activation
The LEVEL of energy substrates that need to react
Climb e'ry *******
Glycolysis
BREAKDOWN of glucose
negative you
Glucogenesis
Generating carbohydrates. AKA formation of glucose
AHHh the beginning!
Nucleoside
PURINE or PYRIMIDINE + sugar (ribose or deoxyribose)
All this sweeting is hurting my sides
Nucleotide
NucleoSIDE + phosphate moiety
Deoxyribonucleic acid AKA DNA
NucleoTIDE string with deoxyribose
Tie the string!
Ribonucleic acif AKA RNA
NucleoTIDE string with ribose
Tie that string!
The molecule that is the most important source of energy for biochemical reactions
ATP
They are letters
Compare the energy storage capability of glycogen and triglycerides with that of adensosine triphosphate (ATP)
Glycogen and triglycerides have BETTER energy storage than ATP.

ATP is not the best energy storage because it is quickly used up after being used. It is a good "energy packet"
Two energy STOARAGE forms that can be broken down to regenerate ATP
Glycogen and triglyceride
One makes you fat. The other was kinda mentioned on Gilligan's Island
Compare reducing and oxidizing agents
Reducing angents SUPPLIES hydrogen and electrona

Oxidizing agents RECEIVE hydrogens and electrons
Less will give

More will get
State the final energy change when several concurrent chemical reactions occur
Net energy LOSS
Stop thinking so negatively!
State the effect enzmes (in general) have on activation energy
It LOWERS the energy hill of activation
I think I can. I think I can. I think I can. If only I had a little help....
Entropy
The degree of disorder
Jon knows so much about this
RibozYmes
Special RNA molecules that catalyzes chemical reactions
Energy of activation
The LEVEL of energy substrates that need to react
Climb e'ry *******
Glycolysis
BREAKDOWN of glucose
negative you
Glucogenesis
Generating carbohydrates. AKA formation of glucose
AHHh the beginning!
Nucleoside
PURINE or PYRIMIDINE + sugar (ribose or deoxyribose)
All this sweeting is hurting my sides
Nucleotide
NucleoSIDE + phosphate moiety
Deoxyribonucleic acid AKA DNA
NucleoTIDE string with deoxyribose
Tie the string!
Ribonucleic acif AKA RNA
NucleoTIDE string with ribose
Tie that string!
Transcription
Formation of RNA FROM DNA

DNA--->RNA
From Spanish talk to Spanish words
Translation
Formation of protein on the mRNA

mRNA--->Protein
From Spanish to English
Codon
Base triplets carried by mRNA

GCG AUG TCG <--carried
mRNA--mRNA--mRNA
Oh not...not twins...but (*&^%
Anticodon
The recognition site on a tRNA molecule that recognizes a specific mRNA codon and now properly lines
Think about what Sarah drew in class a few years ago
First Law of Thermodynamics
Energy is conserved. The total energy on one side of an equation equals the other
Second Law of Thermodynamics
Thingds procede from a state of order toa state of disorder
It's like entropy
Key characteristics of enzymes. What they are known for (specific)
1. Protein

2. Do not supply additional energy

3. Do not change direction of a reaction, but

4. Catalyzes a reaction (speeds up)
4
What effects the rate of a given biochemical reaction
1. Activation energy

2. Temperature

3. Subrate and poduct concentration
There are 3
What does NOT effect the rate of a given biochemical reaction
Net energy change
Diffrentiate positive and negative feedback with respect to enzyme activity
Positive feedback--the activity of a given enzyme is STIMULATED

Negative feedback--the activity of a given enzyme is INHIBITED
Differentiate the effects of enzymes and hormones
Enzymes have a DIRECT role in controlling reaction energy

Hormones act DIRECTLY or INDIRECTLY to affect the degree of enzyme sysnthesis or activation
DNA and RNA synthesis takes place here
In the Nucleus
The brain of the cell
Glycolysis takes place here
In the cytosol
Fluid and jelly like
Kreb's sycle takes place here
In the mitochondria
Looks like those rough cleaning sponges
Name the key fuel for the Kreb's Cyle
Acetyl CoA
Transcription
Formation of RNA FROM DNA

DNA--->RNA
From Spanish talk to Spanish words
Translation
Formation of protein on the mRNA

mRNA--->Protein
From Spanish to English
Codon
Base triplets carried by mRNA

GCG AUG TCG <--carried
mRNA--mRNA--mRNA
Oh not...not twins...but (*&^%
Anticodon
The recognition site on a tRNA molecule that recognizes a specific mRNA codon and now properly lines
Think about what Sarah drew in class a few years ago
First Law of Thermodynamics
Energy is conserved. The total energy on one side of an equation equals the other
Second Law of Thermodynamics
Thingds procede from a state of order toa state of disorder
It's like entropy
Key characteristics of enzymes. What they are known for (specific)
1. Protein

2. Do not supply additional energy

3. Do not change direction of a reaction, but

4. Catalyzes a reaction (speeds up)
4
What effects the rate of a given biochemical reaction
1. Activation energy

2. Temperature

3. Subrate and poduct concentration
There are 3
What does NOT effect the rate of a given biochemical reaction
Net energy change
Diffrentiate positive and negative feedback with respect to enzyme activity
Positive feedback--the activity of a given enzyme is STIMULATED

Negative feedback--the activity of a given enzyme is INHIBITED
Differentiate the effects of enzymes and hormones
Enzymes have a DIRECT role in controlling reaction energy

Hormones act DIRECTLY or INDIRECTLY to affect the degree of enzyme sysnthesis or activation
DNA and RNA synthesis takes place here
In the Nucleus
The brain of the cell
Glycolysis takes place here
In the cytosol
Fluid and jelly like
Kreb's sycle takes place here
In the mitochondria
Looks like those rough cleaning sponges
Name the key fuel for the Kreb's Cyle
Acetyl CoA
Comparing oxygen use and ATP produced between Glycolosis and Krebs cycle/oxidative phosphorylation
OXYGEN: Kreb's uses oxygen while glycolysis does not

ATP: More ATP is produced in Kreb's cyle
Glycolosys occurs here
Throughout the body
Glycogenesis occurs here
Mainly in the liver and sometimes the kidneys
Three sources of acetyl CoA
1. Glucose

2. Fatty Acid

3. Amino Acid

(4.) Maybe alcohol
2. acids and something sweet
The main source of acetyl CoA
Fatty Acid
Base pairs for DNA
Adenine + Thymine AKA A-T

Guanine + Uracil AKA G-C
Show the altered function of Reye's Syndrome
Asprin + (or and) viral infection shows when there is damage to the mitochondria. Impeded incorporation of ammonia into the urea. Hepatic coma. It is a children's disease
Show the altered function of Cyanide poisoning
1. Interfere's with electron transport.

2. Binds to Fe+++ of cytochrome oxidase

3. Prevents oxygen from binding with oxidase
Show the altered function of Carbon monoxide poisoning
Combines with heme in cytochrome oxidase and heme
Has the name of the class you're not taking right now
Purine or Pyrimidine: ADENINE
A purine
Purine or Pyrimidine: CYTOSINE
A Pyrimidine
Purine or Pyrimidine: GUANINE
A Purine
Purine or Pyrimidine: THYMIDINE
A Pyrimidine
Purine or Pyrimidine: URACIL
A Pyrimidine
The purines and pyrimidines in DNA
Adenine, thymine, guanine, and ctytocine
The purines and pyrimidines in RNA
Adenine, uracil, guanine, cytosine
Helicase
Unwinds DNA double helix
Topoisomerase
Reduces super-coiling during the unwinding process
Like a tangles telephone cord
Primase
Makes primers by making short strands of DNA
DNA polymerase
Polymerizes nucleotides to form a NEW DNA strand. Had exonuclease properties
Exonuclease
Hydrolyzes and REMOVES or PREVENTS addition of wrongly paired terminal neucleotides
It's like a security guars not wanted wrongly uncool people in the club or party. Kicks the OUT.
Endonuclease
Hydrolyzes connections between nucleotides that live in the central area of nucleotide chains
DNA ligase
CONNECTS newly formed fragments
The number of bases in a codon
Three
Stooges
Events of RNA synthesis
1. RNA polymerase is an enzyme that polymerizes nucleotides using DNA as a template

2. Promoters tell where RNA to START

3. STOP SIGNS tell when to stop
Events of Protein synthesis
1. mRNA carries genetic code--purine and pyrimidine triplets

2. Genetic code-codons

3. tRNA carries SAA ???

4. Stop signal has 3 codons

5. Amino acid may have more than one codon
I don't even know....
Substance formed as a waste product of purines
Urate
On youtube, how do you make a vid get a good or bad review?
Five molecules (other than DNA and RNA) that may contain purine or pyrimidine bases
1. ATP/ADP

2. GTP/GDP

3. NADH/NAD

4. FADH2/FAD

5. Cylic AMP
Others: CoA, UDP (glucose), CDP(choline)
The source for most of the purines and pyrimidines that are used by the body. Are they synthesized byt the body's cells or absorbed through the gut?
Synthesized by the body's cells
Disease associated with excess uric acid
Gout
Disease associated with adenosine deaminase deficiency
Severe Combusted Immunodefinciency Syndrome
(SCIS)
What is it?

it'SA KISS!
Disease associated with Purine nucleoside phophorylase definciency
Immune definciency and decreased number of T cells
The RNA types that are formed during transcription and describe the the functions about to be made
1. mRNA-template for protein about to be made

2. tRNA-transfers individual specific amino acids to be linked to an mRNA

3. rRNA-Part of ribosome structure that can bond formation
The bond that hold DNA base pairs together
Hydrogen bonds