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13 Cards in this Set

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Aldose
Monosaccharide containing one aldehyde group per molecule; or a sugar molecule that has a terminus of a carbonyl group, which is a carbon with a double bond to an oxygen and single bond to another element depending on the type of molecule
Ketose
Disaccharide that is formed by the dehydration synthesis (removal of a water molecule) of two monosaccharides and is distinguished in that the cabonyl group is in the center of the molecule
carbonyl group (>CO)
consists of an oxygen atom joined to the carbon skeleton by a double bond. If the carbonyl group is on the end of the skeleton, the compound is an aldehyde. If the carbonyl group is within the carbon skeleton, then the compound is a ketone. Isomers with aldehydes versus ketones have different properties.
Hydroxyl group (—OH)
a hydrogen atom forms a polar covalent bond with an oxygen atom, which forms a polar covalent bond to the carbon skeleton. Because of these polar covalent bonds, hydroxyl groups increase the solubility of organic molecules. Organic compounds with hydroxyl groups are alcohols, and their names typically end in -ol.
carboxyl group (—COOH)
consists of a carbon atom with a double bond to an oxygen atom and a single bond to the oxygen of a hydroxyl group. Compounds with carboxyl groups are carboxylic acids. A carboxyl group acts as an acid because the combined electronegativities of the two adjacent oxygen atoms increase the dissociation of hydrogen as an ion (H+).
amino group (—NH2)
consists of a nitrogen atom bonded to two hydrogen atoms and the carbon skeleton. Organic compounds with amino groups are amines. The amino group acts as a base because the amino group can pick up a hydrogen ion (H+) from the solution.
Amino acids
are the building blocks of proteins (form peptide chains) and contain both amino and carboxyl groups
sulfhydryl group (—SH)
consists of a sulfur atom bonded to a hydrogen atom and to the backbone. This group resembles a hydroxyl group in shape.Organic molecules with sulfhydryl groups are thiols. Two sulfhydryl groups can interact to help stabilize the structure of proteins.
phosphate group (—OPO32−)
consists of a phosphorus atom bound to four oxygen atoms (three with single bonds and one with a double bond). A phosphate group connects to the carbon backbone via one of its oxygen atoms. Phosphate groups are anions with two negative charges, as two protons have dissociated from the oxygen atoms.One function of phosphate groups is to transfer energy between organic molecules. Adenosine triphosphate, or ATP, is the primary energy-transferring molecule in living cells.
Urea
CO(NH2)2, is another simple organic molecule in which each atom forms covalent bonds to complete its valence shell.
What determines the function of an organic molecule?
It's 3-dimensional shape; the different arrangement of amino acids in a protein give it a distinct shape that defines its use
Nucleotide
any of several compounds that consist of a ribose or deoxyribose sugar joined to a purine or pyrimidine base and to a phosphate group and that are the basic structural units of RNA and DNA
Kinase
alternatively known as a phosphotransferase, is a type of enzyme that transfers phosphate groups from high-energy donor molecules, such as ATP, to specific target molecules (substrates); the process is termed phosphorylation (An enzyme that removes phosphate groups from targets is known as a phosphatase.)