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130 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Enzymes are members of which class of biomolecules?
What is the function of enzymes?
Biochemical catalysts
All of the following phrases correctly describes enzymes except?
Behave as substrates
The tertiary structure of most enzymes is?
The non-protein portion required by some enzyes for proper functioning is called?
When a molecule similar to the correct sustrate interacts, but does not covalently bind with the active site of an enzyme, the process is called
Competitive inhibition
The substance being chemically transformed by an enzyme is called the ?
Which is the correct term for an inactive form of the enzyme, often used for storage or transport of the enzyme to the site where its action is needed?
Overdosing on vitamin A and D is more likely than overdosing on vitamin c because?
Vit. A/D are fat soluble, andthus can accumulate in body fat, where vit. C is water soluble and the excess will be excreted in urine
All of the following vitamins are fat soluble except?
C (D A K E are)
A vitamin is?
A small organic molecule obtained from the diet and necessary for good health
Which term identifies the relatively small portion of the enzyme that is directly involved in the biochemical reaction being catalyzed?
Active site
Which aspect of enzyme structure is related to our dietary need for the trace minerals?
The name of an enzyme can often be recognized by the ending?
a type of enzyme that catalyzes the breakdown of large molecules by reaction with water
a substance that prevents harmful reactions of free radicals
any process which decreases the rate of an enzyme catalyzed reaction
an inactive form of an enzyme, also called a proenzyme
a small organic molecule necessary for good health that must be obtained in the diet
a description of enzyme activity based on an exact match between the shapes of the active sites and the substrate molecule
lock n' key model
Which of the following sugars is produced in the most abundance by living organisms, and often converted into various polysaccharide forms?
Cellulose is produced by____ and its major function is ___
Plants, structural component
Glucose can be classified as a(an)?
any CHO with aldehyde groups which can be easily oxidized to produce a carboxylic acid
reducing sugar
a component of starch composed of glucose units joined by alpha01,4 linkages
a monosaccharide which is a component of milk sugar
a polysaccharide composed of glucose units joined by BN-1,4 linkages and therefore not digestable by humans
any CHO that yields two mono's upon hydrolysis
a disaccharide composed of one molecule of glucose and one molecule of fructose
an aldopentose that is a component of nulceic acids
a very highly branched polysaccharide used by animals to store glucose units
Chondroitin sulfate is produced by___and its function is___
animals, structural component
Heparin is produced by___and its major function is___
animals, structural component
Sucrose is not a reducing sugar, because its?
disaccharide bond cannot hydrolyze to an aldehyde in water
Glycogen is produced by___and its major function is___
animals, energy storage
Classify the molecule shown according to the location of its carbonyl group and the number of carbon atoms
aldehyde at the end
ketone-2nd C
5 carbons
Some sugars are able to react with the mild oxidizing solutions of copper such as Benedicts, due to
the presence of an Aldehyde group, usually on #1 carbon atom
The reaction in which a disaccharide is broken down into its component monsacchardie is?
Starch is produced by___and its major function is___
plants, energy storage
Cow eat grass, and benefit from its nutrive value
Bacteria in gut, produce enzymes, hydrolyze cellulose
The disease identified as diabetes are primarily associated with a malfunction of the hormone ?
Which of the following is NOT a product of digestion?
pyruvate (breaks bonds)
Hormones which regulate glucose metabolism are___,___and___
insulin, glucagon, epinephrine
Which chemical is produced from pyruvate when it is metabolized in muscle cells under anaerobic conditions?
In the first step of glycolysis, the conversion of glucose to glucose 6-phosphate is known as
Gluconeogenasis occurs mainly in the
A blood sample is analyzed for glucose and found to contain 225mg/dl this level is considered?
A lack of insulin causes___a state in which the concentration of blood sugar is___than normal?
hyperglycemia, higher
Glycogen is most commonly found in___cells and____cells
Muscle, liver
The process of making glucose from nonCHO's is known as?
Which organ produces the hormones needed to control blood glucose levels?
All of the following statements concerning digestion are correct except?
The same enzymes are used in the digestion of CHO, lipids, and proteins
The molecule which sits at the surface of RBC to identify those cells to the immune system as either self or foreign is a type of
Which blood type is known as the universal donor?
type O
Glycolysis occurs mainly in the?
cytosol of all cells
The target molecules for a-amylase is(are)
Starch and Glycogen
Which chemical is produced from pyruvate when sugar is metabolized by yeast cells, a process called fermentation?
Injection of too much insulin w/out eating sugary ot starchy may cause___a condition in which the concent' of blood sugar is ___than normal
hypoglcemia, lower
When a person is deprived of food, in which order does the body use the following sources to produce glucose?
conv. of glycogen to glucose
breakdown of AA, glucogenesis
catabolism of lipids
When energy is needed and adequate oxygen is available, pyruvate is converted to?
The hydrocarbon end of a soap molecule is
hydrophobic and attracted to grease
The compound that is the immediate precursor to the prostaglandins is
arachidonic acid
Aspirin and other non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs act by inhibiting the conversion of
arachidonic acid to prostaglandins
The product of an esterification reaction between which of the following molecules would be a natural oil found in plants
The function of glycoproteins and glycolipids in cell membranes is to
mediate interactions between the cell and outside agents such as antibodies and hormones
Protein structures which extend completely through the cell membrane generally function to
provide channels for active transport across the cell membrane
fats are generally___at room temperature and are obtained from___
solids, animals
Which molecule is a polyunsaturated fatty acid
even carbons
Cholesterol is not water soluble and therefore requires what for transport in the circulatory system?
the lipoproteins HDL and LDL
Oils are genrally___at room temperature and are obtained from___
liquids, plants
Steroids are
based on a tetracyclic ring system with substituents at various positions
Biomolecules can be classified as lipids on the basis of
the physical property of solubility in nonpolar organic solvents
Phospholipids differ from fats and oils by having
one of the fatty acid ester linkages replaced by a phosphate ester linkage
Which molecule is a fatty acid likely to be found in plants and animals?
Which reaction can be used to convert oils into fats?
The basic structure of cell membranes consist of
phospholipid bilayers studded with proteins
Various types of prostaglandins can act to control all of the following except
glycogenesis by the liver (insulin)
pain, stomach acid, B/P, childbirth (all yes)
Most naturally occuring monounsaturated fatty acids can be classified as which conformation by the following?
The type of lipid that is predominant in cell membranes is?
How soap removes grease from fabric
hydrophobic inside
hydrophilic outside
grease in the middle
Antibodies are members of which class of biomolecules?
When the hydrophobic and polar interactions holding a protein in a specific conformation are disrupted the protein is said to be
All of the following are major functions of proteins except
production of the water soluble B vitamins
refers to R group that do not interact readily w/water because they are non-polar
refers to R group which forms H bonds w/water because of their polarity
A protein that is usually water soluble having a hydrophilic exterior and hydrophobic interior overall rounded shape
globular protein
A carbon atom bonded to four different groups and therefore able to form enantiomers
chiral carbon
A protein that produces only amino acids upon hydrolysis
simple protein
A protein that is usally insoluble in water is very tough and has a long shape
fibrous protein
A process or reaction which releases heat to the surroundings is said to be
How would the following factors change the rate of a chemical reaction?
-Inc. temp
-Remove products formed
-Add a catalyst
= increase
The phrase Like dissolves Like means that a solvent and solute w/similar functional groups will generally form solutions
All organic chemicals must contain what element?
How much NaCl is needed to make 50.0mL of a 16% (w/v) solution
The passage of salts and small organic molecules across a semipermeable membrane because of concen' differences is called
RBC are placed in a solution and neither hemolysis nor crenation occurs the solution is
When acids and amines react the product is a
ammonium salt
If the pH of a water sample is 4. The sample is
The functional group illustrated by R-OH is an
All the elements found in an Amino acid
Which organic compound does not contain any multiple bonds
The functional group illustrated below is an
R-C-NH2 = an Amide
Two or more compounds w/the same molecular formula but w/the atoms connected differently referred to as
The carbon skeleton, how many H atoms in total bonded to the hydrocarbon molecule
C-C-C-C-C = 16
When ethyl alcohol undergoes complete combustion or complete metabolism, the product is
CO2 and H2O
When an alkene undergoes catalytic hydrogenation the product of saturating the double bond by additon of hydrogen is an
In organic chemistry the term unsaturated means a molecule
which contains one or more multiple bonds between carbon atoms
The starting material for polmerization reactions is an
The amino acid containing a benzene ring is called (an R group)
Which of the following is NOT the common name of an aromatic compound
Compounds w/the -OH group attached to an aromatic ring are known as
Which of the following is the most soluble in water
Alkylamines are most similar in chemical structure and behave to
When the N atom in an organic compound has 4 covalent single bonds it is positively charged and called
quarternary ammonium ion
Which compound is an example of an amine salt?
methylammonium chloride
The carbonyl group is
a functional group in which C and O are joined by a double bond
Which compound will give a positive test with Benedict's solution
glucose (an aldehyde)
Which type of compound does not contain a carbonyl group?
When an alcohol reacts with a carboxylic acid, forming water as a by product, the major product is?
an ester
When an amine reacts w/a carboxylic acid at a high temperature, forming water as a by product, the major product is?
an amide
The reverse of the above 2 chemical reactions, adding water to the products to reform the original carboxylic acid and alcohol or amine is called
An alpha amino acid has an -NH2 group attached to the molecule at which location?
the carbon atom next to the carboxyl group
Which of the following bonds is not present in a carboxylic acid functional group?
The solubility of compounds containing the carboxylic acid group can be increased by reaction in water w/what form of salt
a strong base such as sodium hydroxide
The products of hydrolysis of ethyl acetate are
ethyl alcohol + acetic acid
Reaction of animal fats w/NaOH is called
The first step in glucose metabolism is addition of phosphate to one of the -OH groups of glucose. The resulting compound is called
phosphate ester
Members of which family of organic molecules are the building blocks of protein?
Amino acids
An amino acid whose R group is predominantly hydrocarbon would be classified as
When the amide (peptide) bonds of a protein are broken realeasing A.A. into a water solution, the protein is said to be