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106 Cards in this Set

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what does primase do?
make the RNA primer
what does DNA pol I do?
excise the RNA primer with 5->3 exonuclease
begins at a consensus sequence of AT base pairs?
replication
prokaryotic DNA polymerases?
DNA pol I, III
eukarytoic DNA polymerases?
alpha, beta, delta, gamma, eta
what recognizes and removes a damaged base?
glycosylase
Eukaryotic RNA polymerase?
Prokaryotic RNA polymerase?
RNA pol I, II, III
RNA polymerase makes all 3 kinds of RNA
in eukarytoes, opens up DNA at the promoter site?
RNA pol II
alpha-amanitin inhibits...
RNA pol II
what are TATA and CAAT?
promoter sites for eurkaryotic RNA pol II to open up DNA
what is the initiation codon?
AUG
what binds the promoter?
RNA polymerase
transcription factors
what to transcription factors bind?
promoters (upstream of gene)
enhancers (anywhere)
sequence at 3' end of splice acceptor site?
AG
what is heterogeneous nuclear RNA?
the initial mRNA transcript
what's at the 3' end of a tRNA?
CCA (methionene)
chemically modified bases
what is GTP required for?
tRNA translocation
what are Nissle bodies?
RER in neurons
tissues rich in SER?
hepatocytes
adrenal cortex
adds N-linked sugars?
ER
adds O linked sugars?
Golgi
coarse facial features and restricted joint movement?
I-cell disease
What is Chediak-Hegashi syndrome?
MT polymerization defect resulting in decreased phagocytosis
each dimer of alpha and beta tubulin has...
2 GTP bound
what increases melting temperature of a membrane?
increased cholesterol
increased long saturated FA
phosphatidylcholine (lecithin) is a component of..
RBC membranes
myelin
bile
surfactant
what are collagen alpha chains called?
preprocollagen
what is procollagen, and where is it?
triple helix of alpha chains
Golgi
when peptidase cleaves procollagen, you get...
tropocollagen
cross-linking of tropocollagen gives...
collagen fibrils
features of Ehlers-Danlos?
hyperextensible skin
easy bruising
hypermobile joints
(berry aneurysms)
middle ear bones and dental imprefections?
osteogenesis imperfecta
Type II osteogenesis imperfecta is...
fatal in utero
stain for connective tissue?
vimentin
stain for epithelial cells?
cytokeratin
where does Acetyl co-A production take place?
mitochondria
what metaboslim is in both mitochondria and cytoplasm?
gluconeogenesis
urea cycle
heme synthesis
major enzymes of the HMP shunt?
G6PD
transketolase
__________ are not gluconeogenic, but _________ is
FA......glycerol-3-P (stored fat)
how many ATP via which shuttles?
38 ATP via malate shuttle
36 ATP via G3P shuttle
carrier of acyl groups?
co-A and lipoamide groups
what vitamin is needed for glutamate-->GABA?
B6
what is NADPH used for ?
anabolic processes
respiratory burst
P450
enzyme kinetics of glucokinase in the liver?
high Km and high Vmax
stimulate PFK?
AMP
Fructose-2,6-bisphosphate
what irreversible enzyme of glycolysis can cause hemolytic anemia if deficient?
pyruvate kinase
increased NAD+/NADH ratio...
activates PDC
first cofactor for the PDC?
pyrophosphate (B1, thiamine; TPP)
pyruvate dehydrogenase deficiency causes a back up of...
treat with....
pyruvate and alanine
ketogenic nutrients (Lys, Leu)
The cori cycle occurs in...
RBC and muscle
how many ATP per acetyl-CoA?
12
major regulatory enzymes of TCA cycle?
alpha-ketoglutarate DH
isocitrate DH
electron transport continues with...
uncoupling agents
ATPase inhibitor?
oligomycin
electron transport inhibitors?
rotenone, antimycin A, CN, CO
first 2 enzymes of gluconeogenesis?
pyruvate carboxylase (mitochondria)
PEP carboxykinase
requirements for pyruvate carboxylase?
biotin, ATP
activated by acetyl-CoA
what does PEP carboxykinase require?
GTP
where does gluconeogenesis occur?
liver
kidney
intestinal epithelium
no ATP is used or produced in...
HMP shunt
anabolic functions of NADPH?
steroid synthesis
FA synthesis
reducing glutathione
sites of HMP shunt?
lactacting mammary gland
liver
adrenal cortex
cataract, hepatosplenomegaly and mental retardation?
galactosemia
what amino acids transport ammonium?
alanine and glutamine
deficiency of homogentisic acid oxidase?
alkaptonuria
dibilitating arthralgias?
alkaptonuria
cofactor for methionene synthase?
cofactor for cystahtionene synthase?
B12
B6
increased alpha-ketoacids in the blood?
MSUD
excess ATP in adenosine deaminase deficiency inhibits...
ribonucleotide reductase
actions of insulin besides glucose transport and glycogen synthesis?
protein and TG synthesis
Na retention
insulin phosphorylates/dephosphorylates?
dephosphorylates
ketone bodies are made from
FA
amino acids
(HMG Co-A)
ketone bodies are used by
muscle and brain
what does LCAT do?
esterify plasma cholesterol
what does lipoprotein lipase do?
degrade TG circulating in chylomicrons and VLDL
what is A-I?
What is C-II?
activates LCAT
cofactor for lipoprotein lipase
lipemia retinalis with extra...
arcus cornae with extra...
chylomicrons
LDL
needed for chylomicron metabolism, found in HDL?
apoC and apoE
what secretes HDL?
liver and intestine
altered apoE?
dysbetalipoproteinemia
hypertriglyceridemia (Type IV) is commonly found in...
diabetics
pregnancy
alcoholics
hepatic overproduction of VLDL causes...
combined hyperlipidemia (IIb)
hypertriglyceridemia (IV)
what causes porphyrias?
heme synthesis intermediates
what inhibits ferrochelatase and ALA dehydrase?
lead poisoning
why does fetal Hb have a higher affinity for oxygen?
lower affinity for 2,3-BPG
methylene blue is for...
toxic level of metHb
what has an increased affinity for CN-?
methemoglobin
CO2 binding favors the ____________ from of Hb and thus promotes oxygen unloading
taut
no male to male transmission?
X-linked recessive
all female offspring of the affected father are diseased?
X-linked dominant
all offspring of affected female show signs of disease?
mitochondrial inheritance
male never transmits?
mitochondrial inheritance
optic pathway gliomas and juvenile cataract?
NF2
hemangioblastomas of the cerebellum and retina?
VHL
cortical and retinal hamartomas?
tuberous sclerosis
associated with mitral valve prolapse?
polycystic kidney disease
skeletal disorders, pheo, increased tumor susceptibility?
NF1
defect in the FMR1 gene?
Fragile X syndrome
decreased levels of alpha feto protein, increased levels of beta hCG?
Down's syndrome
what is Down's mosaicism?
features of Downs, but normal IQ
due to nondisjunction during mitosis (rather than meiosis)
deletion of short arm of chromosome 5?
Cri-du-chat
cofactor for transketolase and necessary for carboxylation of ketoacid?
B1
facilitates iron absorpton by keeping it reduced?
Vitamin C
cofactor for dopamine-->NE
Vitamin C
vitamin deficiencies caused by antibiotics?
biotin
Vit K
what does the increased NADH/NAD ratio do in an alcoholic?
inhibits gluconeogenesis
hepatocellular steatosis