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57 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
What is an acid?
What is a base?
Describe the pH scale.
0-14, 7 is neutral, 14 is base, 0 is acid
What are all living things made of?
What is an atom?
the basic building block of matter--over 100 types.
What is an element?
Comprised of one kind of atom, they combine to form compounds
What is a compound?
2 or more kinds of atoms in different proportions, compounds can be broken down into their different parts -- elements can't
How many parts do atoms have?
3 - nucleus, protons, and neutrons and the electrons are outside of the nucleus
What are the charges of protons, neutrons, and electrons?
protons - positive
neutrons - neutral or no charge
electrons - negative with less mass than neutrons or protons
What is the atomic number?
tells you how many protons are found in the nucleus
What is the mass number?
is the sum of an atoms protons and neutrons
How many more protons than electrons does an atom have?
Atoms have the same number of protons as they do electrons
What is a molecule?
When 2 or more atoms combine and act as a single particle
What is a chemical bond?
The forces of attraction that hold molecules together
What is a covalent bond?
chemical bonds formed by the sharing of electrons-
What is an ionic bond?
A chemical bond when electrons are not shared
What is a chemical formula and a structural formula?
A chemical formula is represented by a chemical symbol, H2O. A structural formula is like a chemical formula but demonstrates how a molecule binds together
What are molecules represented by?
formulas - either a chemical formula or a structural formula
What is a chemical reaction?
A chemical reaction demonstrates a chemical change that occurs when atoms interact to form molecules
Can matter be created or destroyed?
NO!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! we MUST have equilibrium!!! HOMEOSTASIS!!!!!!!!!!!!
What is a mixture?
a combination of substances that are physically mixed without forming new chemical bonds. Substances are present in any proportion.
What is a solution?
(another word for mixture) is applied to mixtures in liquid form.
What is a solvent?
The liquid substance that makes up the bulk of the solution
What is a solute?
The other substance(s) that are dissolved in the solvent. Solutes may be solid, liquid, or gas. Most common solutions have water as the solvent. Many process in your body depend on the presence of certain solutes.
What is a suspension?
Solutes that do not dissolve into a solvent and tend to settle out of solution
What is an ion?
Some compounds when dissolved into solution break apart and form separate ions.
What is neutralization?
the reaction of an acid and base together. Together they form a salt and water. When they react the base and acid lose their individual properties.
What is pH?
a measurement of how strong or weak an acid or base is and is dependent on the presence or absence of H+ and OH- ions respectively.
What is an indicator?
substances that change color when the pH goes above or below a certain value.
What is the most common element in the universe and most commonly here?
What is the most abundant element in the HUMAN BODY?
What can a chemical compound be?
organic or inorganic
What is an organic compound?
-all contain carbon
-most contain hydrogen
-most contain oxygen
-occur naturally only in living things
-large n complex
What is an inorganic compound?
-doesn't contain carbon except for carbon dioxide and other carbonate compounds
-small n simple
List the four organic compounds we studied
-Nucleic Acids
What are the building blocks and elements of carbohydrates?
Elements: carbon, hydrogen, oxygen (CHO) 2:1 hydrogen to oxygen ratio
Blocks: monosaccharide
What are the building blocks and elements of proteins?
Elements: (CHON) sometimes sulfur
Blocks: amino acids
What are the building blocks and elements of lipids?
Elements: (CHO) same as carbohydrates except for different ratio
Blocks: glycerol n fatty acids
What are the building blocks and elements of nucleic acids?
Elements: (CHONP)
Blocks: nucleotides
Give an example of carbohydrates.
sugars n complex carbohydrates (starches)
What is a monosaccharide, a dissacharide, and a polysaccharide?
m- a simple sugar, has the formula C6 H12 O6, all have a single ring structure

d- a double sugar, formula is C12 H22 O11

p- formed of 3 or more sugars, ex. glycogen, cellulose, starches (energy storage)
What is dehydration synthesis?
Combining simple molecules to form a more complex one with the removal of water
What is hydrolysis?
the addition of water to a compound to split it into smaller subunits
What is a lipid?
fats, oils, waxes, steroids, function in energy storage, protection, and insulation, tend to be large molecules
What is a protein?
functions in growth and repair, energy, helps keep body pH constant (buffer), a dipeptide - formed from two amino acid subunits
What are the three parts of an amino acid?
-amino group
-side chain
-carboxyl group
What is a polypeptide?
a protein composed of three or more amino acids linked by synthesis reactions
What is a nucleic acid?
contains the genetic code of instructions that direct a cell's behavior through the synthesis of proteins and found in chromosones of the nulceus (DNA)

(RNA)- found in ribosomes and nucleoli
What is an enzyme?
speeds up a chemical reaction, made of protein
What is a substrate?
the molecules upon which an enzyme acts
A DNA molecule is coiled to form a....
double helix!!
A nucleotide consists of...
sugar, phosphate, and nitrogen base
(sun - house - garage molecule form)
Nucleic acids are made of...
What are the two categories of lipids?
saturated and unstaurated
How is a fat formed from glycerol and fatty acids?
dehydration synthesis
What is the difference of saturated and unstaurated fats?
sat- single bonds
unsat- multiple bonds
Proteins are polymers of molecules called....
a polypeptide