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15 Cards in this Set

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What is the most abundant type of organic molecule in nature?
the carbohydrates
What are the three major classes of carbohydrates?
monosaccharides, oligosaccharides, and polysaccharides
What are monosaccharides?
they are simple sugars that can be either polyhydroxy aldehydes or polyhydroxy ketones
What are oligosaccharides?
they are short chains of monosaccharide units joined together by covalent bonds, usually 2 to 10 units long
Where are oligosaccharides located?
they are located on the cell membrane
What are polysaccharides?
they are very long chains of monosaccharide units, usually made up of hundreds or thousands or units
What are the functions of carbohydrates?
they provide energy when they are oxidized (sugar with lots of C and O is burned), they supply C building blocks after being broken down for the synthesis of cell components, and they store energy to form parts of structural elements and protection of some cells and tissues
What is the general formula for a monosaccharide?
(CH2O)n where n is any integer from 3 to 7
What is an aldose?
a monosaccharide that contains an aldehyde group
What is a ketose?
a monosaccharide that contains a ketone group
How are monosaccharides classified by number of carbons?
aldo- or keto- in front, then how ever many C atoms there are (-tri-, -tetr-, -pent-, -hex-, -hept-) and then -oses
What family does the suffix -ose belong to?
the sugar family
What are the two smallest monosaccharides?
glyceraldehyde and dihydroxyacetone
What is the simplest aldose?
glyceraldehyde
What is the structure of glyceraldehyde?
COH-CHOH-CH2OH