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36 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
compostion - carbon, hydrogen, oxygen
signifigance? quick and available energy
Types of Carbohydrates:
"simple sugars" (C6H12O6)
Come from photo- or chemosynthesis
signifigance? forms of sugar we can use
Why must Disacchorides and Polysacchorides be broken down?
b/c only the monosacchorides can be absorbed and transported to cells
Types of Carbohydrates:
"double sugars" (C12H22O11)
Maltose - germanating grains (ex. barley)
Lactose - milk
Sucrose - sugar (ex. cookies)
formed by dehydration synthesis
Dehydration Synthesis
make by removing H2O
ex.glucose + glucose —› maltose + water
glucose + galactose —› lactose + H2O
glucose + fructose —› sucrose + H2O
"complex sugars"
structure? long chains of monosacchorides
function? store energy (ex. roots) and structural units (ex. cellulose)
ex. starch, glycogen, cellulose and chitin
stored sugars in plants
humans can't make this
sap in trees is starch
ex. corn, potatoes, rice
stored sugars in animals
found in muscles and liver tissue
AKA bulk, roughage, fiber
we can't digest this b/c of no cellulose (neither can termites)
cellulose fiber cleans intestines
plant walls have cellulose
anthropod's exoskeleton
"break down of substance using water"
ex. listerine strips, commmunion wafer
Simple Sugar Tests
Benedict's soulution - blue, betrayer of monosacchorides only, shows up orange
Fehling's Soulution - clear and blue
Abundance of Water
•on the planet
•in living cells
•75% on the planet
•in all living cells
ex. protoplasm, cytoplasm
Important Properties of Water
•phase dependant on temperature
(most cpds contract)
Polarity of a Water Molecule
oxygen end=negative
hydrogen end=positive
ionically bonded cpds dissolve in water
Most Abundant Elements in Living Things
Carbon, Hydrogen, Oxygen, Nitrogen(78%)
Organic Cpds
contain carbon
(chemistry of carbon)
Inorganic Cpds
**no carbon present in inorganic cpds**
exception-Carbon Dioxide
ex. salt, water, rust, sand
Why is carbon so special?
•It can form covalent bonds w/ carbons or other ions
•It can form long chains or rings
many simple units connecting to make a larger unit
simple unit connecting to other simple units ex. pearls & string
ex. monomers —› polymer
amino acids —› protein
simple sugars —› carbonydrates
nucleotides —› neuclic acids
"large molecule"
•lots of polymers
•thousands of monomers
ex. DNA w/ it's repeating units
4 Categories of Organic Cpds
Carbohydrate - quick energy (ex. pasta before game)
Proteins - building block of life (ex. hair, skin, hormones, enzymes)
Lipids - stores energy; insulation (ex. kidney)
Nucleic Acids - provide a blueprint for life (ex. personality)
Protein provides structural basis for: Antibodies
body's natural defense proteins
inactivate foreign antigens(an indentifiable protein)

**see diagram**
Protein provides structural basis for: Muscle Fibers
contain contractile filaments called actin and myosin (cause muscles to contract)
Protein provides structural basis for: Hormones
"chromosome messengers in blood stream
(endocrine glands)

insulin-from pancreus, reg. blood sugar
adrenalin-fight of flight
estrogen-female hormones
Benedict's Solution
-betrays simple sugars
-turns them orange
Fehling's Solution
-clear and blue
-tests for simple sugars
-tests for starch
-amber—›balck on starches
Composition of Proteins
C, H, O, and N
Amino Acids
•simple units of protein
(repeting monomers)
•20 are known
•number can vary from 1-100s
•order is significant
(sickle cell anemia is missing 1 amino acid)
Peptide Bonds
function? holds amino acids together
Dipeptides-2 AA and one peptide bond
Tripeptides-3 AA and two peptide bonds
Polypeptides-4+ AA and 3+ peptide bonds
Function of Proteins
Carrier molecules
Structural basis for hair, nails, etc.
Carrier Molecules
explain how things enter and leave cells
-protein in membrane of these
**see diagram**
Examples of Protein Body Coverings
keratin--hair and nails
collagen--builds up tissue, found in tendons, cosmetic surgery
Protein provides structural basis for:
these contain genes and stain easily
polymer w/ monomers
DNA-chromosome-genes-nucleotides-sugar, phosphate basis