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19 Cards in this Set

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Vitamins are so called because...
they are necessary for life (vita) and were all believed to have an AMINE group thus... VITAmin.
(Actually, Vitamin C has NO amino group)
Before use, all vitamins (with very few exceptions) are converted to _________.
Coenzymes
Historically two types of molecules were shown to be important in almost all reactions in the body... they are__________? and how are they told apart?
Enzymes (proteins) and Vitamins (coenzymes/cofactors)

they are told apart because the enzymes are NOT heat stable they denature and vitamins ARE heat stable.
Vitamin B1

Name:
Coenzyme:
Chemistry:
Required for:
Thiamin (thiol & amine groups

Thiamin pyrophosphate (TPP)

Decarboxylation reactions

Group transfer molecules (by adding transfer molecules to carboxyl of phosphate group)
Vitamin B1 or thiamin deficiency is common in ________ and causes __________ symptoms.
Alcoholics.

Loss of apetite, constipation
Mental depression, fatigue
Wernecke-Korsakoff syndrome (confusion and weak eye movements)
beri beri (CNS (dry) and Cardiovascular(wet))
it is believed what percentage of the public suffers from vitamin B deficiencies?
2/3
Vitamin b2

Named?
Converted to Coenzyme?
Purpose?
Riboflavin (necessary SOLUBLE growth factor)

2 different INSOLUBLE conenzymes FMN and FAD.

Redox reactions these molecules become reduced.
Riboflavin is known to have what kind of bonding? What is a riboflavin deficiency called and what are symptoms?
Very tight bonding to proteins.

Riboflavin deficiency and causes lesions and glossitis.
Vitamin B3

2 other Names:
Converted to:
Purpose:
Niacin or Nicotinamide (pyrridine with COOH group)

2 SOLUBLE coenzymes NAD and NADP.

Redox reactions- specifically Hydride transfers (H-). (however realize that FAD and FADN the coenzymes of riboflavin are INSOLUBLE whereas NAD and NADP the coenzymes of niacin are SOLUBLE).
Why isnt niacin technically a vitamin?
Because vitamins are molecules that are absolutely essential and must come from the diet. Niacin however can be made in small amounts by the liver.
Niacin deficiency is said to cause the three D's they are...
Dementia
Dermititis
Diarrhea
Vitamin B5

Named:
Converted to:
Function:
Deficiency:
Pantothenic Acid

Coenzyme A

Acyl transfer (helps break down fats, proteins and carbs)

Burning feet syndrome
In both vitamins and coenzymes where is it that the reactions usually take place on the molecules?
They take place on the alpha carbon of a carbonyl or other EWG. Recall that carbonyl is highly electron withdrawing as are some other molecules namely N and S and thus make the adjacent carbon highly reactive.
Vitamin B6

Vitamin B1

Name:
Coenzyme:
Chemistry:
Required for:
Pyridoxine

pyridoxal phosphate

@ aldehyde group

Amino transfer reactions (bacteria use it to change from L to D enantiomers)

deficiency causes: Anemia (inability to make heme), Neurotransmitter imbalance, more imp. in pregnant women.
Vitamin H

Vitamin B1

Name:
Coenzyme:
Chemistry:
Required for
Biotin

Biocytin (lysine +biotin)

Amino group

Carboxyllation rxns (CO2 carrier)

Deficiency found in Weightlifters and individuals on antibiotics. Eggwhites contain albidin which binds tightly to biotin and intestinal bacteria make biotin.
Lipoic Acid (Not a real vitamin its actually already a conenzyme and made in the body!)

Chemistry:
Required for:
@ carbonyl carbon.

involved in group transfer rxns

Deficiency in individuals whose genetic synthesis does not work.
Vitamin B12

Name:
Coenzyme:
Chemistry:
Required for
Cobalamin

1 of the 3 below:
cyanocobalamin (cheap suppl)
methylcobalamin (in cells)
5 deoxy adrenylcobalamin (in cells)

@ R group

Free radical reactions

Deficiency found in vegetarians and in those w/ pernicious anemia. could be caused by extrinsic factor (not enough in diet) or intrinsic (missing prtein that transports it OUT of the intestine. (liver stores B12 for about 6 months.
Vitamin C

Name:
Conezyme:
Chemistry:
Required for:
Deficiency:
Ascorbic Acid
Ascorbate Acid
?
Synthesis of tissue and production of collagen.

Scurvy- No collagen in capillaries and therefore have bursting capillaries (red-faced).
Fat soluble vitamins
A- vision, modifying proteins
D- controls Calcium levels
E- Redox reagent (no toxicity
K- clotting reactions