• Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
Reading...
Front

How to study your flashcards.

Right/Left arrow keys: Navigate between flashcards.right arrow keyleft arrow key

Up/Down arrow keys: Flip the card between the front and back.down keyup key

H key: Show hint (3rd side).h key

A key: Read text to speech.a key

image

Play button

image

Play button

image

Progress

1/47

Click to flip

47 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Calculate the energy yield from the TCA cycle.
Total 12 ATP equivalents are synthesized by TCA cycle per mole of acetyl-CoA
Flavoproteins in ETC
integral membrane proteins, hydrogen carriers
Ubiquione(coenzyme Q)
mobile hydrogen carrier, has a hydrocarbon tail with 10 isoprene units.
Heme and iron sulfur complexes
non heme, functions in mitochondrial chain by changing oxidation state from ferrous to ferric, integral membrane proteins.
Complex 1 (NADH-CoQ reductase
oxidizes mitochondrial NADH and transfers electrons though FMN and FeS complexes to Ubiquinone.
Cofactor:FMN.
Electron acceptor: Ubiquinone.
Provides energy to pump four protons from the matrix in the reaction.
Complex 2 (Succinate-Q reductase)
oxidizes succinate to fumarate,
reduces FADH to FADH2, carries
electrons
Complex 3 (CoQ-cytochrome c reductase)
oxidizes ubiquinone and reduces cytochrome c
Complex 4 (cytochrome c oxidase)
uses the H from complex 3 to make h2o, the multimer (cytochrome a and a3 and Cu) are electron carriers. 4 electrons are transferred from mitochondrial matrix to intermembrane space.
Chylomicrons
Plasma Lipoprotein
transfer triglycerides from intestine to lymph to blood
Very Low Density Lipoprotein (VLDL)
Plasma Lipoprotein
synthesized by the liver and transport lipids to tissues
Low Density Lipoprotein (LDL)
Plasma Lipoprotein
bind to LDL receptors on cells and are engulfed into the cell, delivering cholesterol to the cell
High Density Lipoprotein (HDL).
Plasma Lipoprotein
Gases(o2, co2, no), polar molecules, small and uncharged (ethanol), water (h2o), polar molecules, large and uncharged(glucose) CAN/CAN NOT pass through the membrane
CAN
. Ions (na,k, mg, ca, cl, hco3, hpo4) polar molecules, charged (amino acids, nucleotides, sugar phosphates) CAN/CAN NOT pass through the membrane
CAN NOT
Essential fatty acids
have 2 or more double bonds (like linolenic and linolenic acids)
CAN NOT be synthesized, it must be supplied via diet. Essential fatty acids are important precursors to prostaglandins, thromboxanes and leukotrienes.
Nonessential fatty acids
acids that can be synthesized from another reactant to produced the desired acid as a product (like arachidonic acid).
Triolein
Liquid at room temperature
Tristearin
Solid at room temperature
Open Chain Lipid
Fatty acids, triglycerides, phospholipids, sphingolipids, glycolipids
Closed Chain Lipid
Steroids such as cholesterol, bile acids and hormones
Triglycerides
Storage form of fatty acid, not a membrane lipid
"neutral fats"
Stored in adipocytes
Form compact, anhydrous bodies within the cell due to their hydrophobicity
Are less oxidized than carbohydrates, so they have more reducing power and generate more energy
Two Types of Phospholipids
Phosphoglycerides-
Phospholipids that have a glycerol backbone with attached fatty acids, phosphate and a group, which is donated by an alcohol (such as choline)

Sphingomyelins-
Phospholipids that have a sphingosine backbone with attached fatty acids, phosphate and a group, which is donated by an alcohol
What is the simplest form of phosphoglyceride?
Phosphatidic acid
What is the component of surfactant, a substance that allows mucus membranes to function properly
Diphosphatidylglycerol
______ is a membrane phospholipid
Phosphatidylcholine
Sphingomyelin
both a sphingolipid and a phospholipid
component of cell membrane
provides insulation for electronic impulses
MS is assocaited with a decreased amount of this.
Classes of Sphingolipids
Cerebrosides- sphingolipid with monosaccharide as a head group
Sulfatides- sulfated cerebroside
Ganglioside- sphingolipids with an attached oligosaccharide
Sphingolipids with covalently bound sugars are known as
glycosphingolipids or glycolipids
Steroids
glycosphingolipids or glycolipids
ex. cholesterol
Composition of Biomembranes
Major membrane lipids(Phospholipids, Sphingolipids, Glycolipids, Cholesterol)
Proteins
Major membrane lipids
Phospholipids
Sphingolipids
Glycolipids
Cholesterol
Flipflop movement of lipids between outer and inner bilayer is rare and needs this enzyme
Flippase
Most membrane lipids and proteins easily move on the surface by ?
Laterla Diffusion
Atherosclerosis is a disease of what?
hardening of the arteries. The “hardening” is caused by the deposition of plaques within the vessel
Risk factors for the development of atherosclerosis include:
Abnormally high levels of LDL-cholesterol
Abnormally low levels of HDL-cholesterol
active in erythrocytes under fasting conditions
GLUT-1
active in pancreatic cells in response to intake of food resulting in increase in blood glucose concentration.
leads to insulin secretion
GLUT-2
active in brain and placenta
GLUT-3
uptake of glucose, stimulated by insulin in muscle tissues
GLUT-4
uptake of dietary fructose in intestine
GLUT-5
Acetyl CoA is the intermediate between ____ and ____.
Glycolysis and the citric acid cyle
Two major funcitons of the TCA cyle
Biosynthesis and Energy production
Pyruvate must be converted to _____ before entering the citric acid cycle
acetyl-CoA
Coenzymes of pyruvate dehydrogenase
Pyruvate decarboxylase(E1): Thiamine pyrophosphate (TPP)
Dihydrolipoyl transacetylase(E2): lipoic acid, CoA-SH
Dihydrolipoyl dehydrogenase(E3): FAD+, NAD
In the regulation of the pyruvate hedyrogenase, what is the kinase inhibtor/activator?
activiation:low concentration of ATP

inhibition:pyruvate, CoASH, NAD+
Products of TCA cycle
NADH 3
GTP 1
FADH2 1
CO2 2
Metabolic intermediates
Anaplerotic
"Filling up"
Anaplerotic reactions provide the TCA cycle with intermediates other than acetyl-CoA to maintain the activity of the cycle