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56 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
Catabolism is an essentially __________ process.
exothermic
Direct phosphorylation of glucose by ATP leads to the formation of
glucose-6-phosphate
Glycolysis occurs within the
cytoplasm
What sugars can enter the glycolysis pathway?
glucose
fructose
galactose
What coenxyme is used in most oxidation-reduction reactions of carbohydrate catabolism?
NAD/NADH
What is the product of the first stage of glycolysis?
glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate
The net ATP output for glycolysis is ____ per glucose molecule.
2 ATP
What is the final product of glycolysis?
pyruvate
What coenzyme must be reoxidized so that glycolysis can continue?
NADH
Under aerobic conditions in the body, pyruvate is converted to
acetyl-CoA
Under anaerobic conditions in muscle cells,pyruvate is converted to:
lactate
The production of triose phosphates in the first stage of glycolysis is an endothermic sequence of reactions.
True
The oxidative(aerobic) reactions of metabolism occure in the:
mitochondria
The direct precursor for the citric acid cycle is:
acetyl-CoA
One turn of the Kreb's cycle produces____ molecules of CO2.
2 CO2
The products of the tricarboxylic acid cycle are carbon dioxide and:
3 NADH
1 FADH2
1 GTP
The electron transport system (ETS) or respiratory chain is found dispersed in the mitocondrial matrix.
False
What metal ions present in the cytochromes of the ETS aid in the passage of electrons down the chain?
Fe++ and Fe+++
The final acceptor of electrons (H atoms) during respirations is:
O2
The formation of ATP in the ETS is called:
oxidative phosphorylation
It is possible to oxidize the hydrogen atoms of acetyl-SCoA without having oxidative phosphorylation occur.
True
The majority of the ATP produced during the catabolism of glucose is formed during:
oxidative phosphorylation
Glycogenolysis directly leads to the formation of glucose-6-phosphate which undergoes glycolysis.
False
glycogenolysis--> gulcose-1-phosphate
An important product of the pentose phosphate pathway (shunt)is:
NADPH
Another important product of the pentose shunt besides NADPH is :
ribose-5-phosphate
NADH is the coenzyme used in anabolism(synthesis).
False
oxidation
The protein complex which is responsible for respiration is imbedded in the inner mitochondrial membrane.
True
Before fats and oils can be metablized, fatty acids must be released from triglycerides with the aid of a triglyceride lipase.
True
The catabolism of fatty acids is called beta-oxidation.
True
The activator/carrier molecule used in fatty acid catabolism is:
coenzyme-A, CoASH
Complete beta-oxidation of a 12 carbon fatty acid produces ____ molecules of acetyl-CoA.
6 acetyl-CoA
Beta-oxidation occurs in the cytoplasm of a cell.
False
occurs in mitochondria
Fatty acid synthesis is the complete reverse of beta-oxidation.
False
The protein which is responsible for the transport of fatty acids through the inner mitochondirial membrane into the matrix is:
carnitine
The synthesis of a 12 carbon fatty acid is achieved by the sequential condensation of 6 acetyl-CoA molecules.
False
What coenzyme is the reducing agent used in fatty acid biosynthesis?
NADPH
The key intermediate in fatty acid synthesis is the free three carbon acid derivative, malonate.
False
Ketone bodies are formed when the concentration of aceytl-CoA in the mitochondria is very high.
True
In the cytoplasm, acetyl-CoA is used in the synthesis of non-saponifiable lipids.
True
The activator/carrier molecule used in fatty acid biosynthesis is:
ACP
Which of the following is a ketone body:
acetyl-CoA
acetone
acetaldehye
malonyl-CoA
acetone
The most important functions of aminoacids is for the synthesis of:
Proteins
Two key aminoacids in the catabolism of the amino group of amino acids are glutamate and ___________.
aspartate
Oxidative deamination of aminoacids directly produces:
ammonium ion (NH4+)
The direct "fuel" for the urea cycle is:
carbamoyl phosphate
The production of glutamate from alpha-ketoglutarate is called:
transamination
The molecule which reacts with carbamoyl phosphate at the start of the urea cycle is oxaloacetate.
False
The second amino group of urea is derived from aspartate.
True
Which of the following can NOT enter the glycolysis pathway?
glucose
fructose
galactose
glycogen
glycogen
What is the product of the endergonic stage of glycolysis?
glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate
Glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate and dihydroxyacetonephoshate are:
trioses
functional isomers
monosaccharides
Gluconeogenesis is the production of glucose from non-carbohydrate sources.
True
The synthesis of a 12-carbon fatty acid is achieved by the sequential condensation of 6 malonyl ACP
True
The key indermediate in fatty acid synthesis is the free three carbon diacid, malonate.
False
malonyl-SCoA
Ketone bodies are formed when the concentration of acetyl-CoA in the Cytoplasm is very high.
False
mitochondria
The molecule which reacts with carbonmoyl phosphate are the Start of the urea cylce is Aspartate.
True