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35 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
how many grams of ethanol are contained in 1 mL?
0.789 g
how much ethanol is contained in 1 standard drink?
10 g
what is the primary site of absorption of ethanol?
small intestine
what does the rate of absorption of alcohol depend on?
rate of gastric emptying
true or false... ethanol is slowly equilibrated across cell membranes
false, this occurs rapidly
is ethanol a strong or weak drug?
it is a very weak drug (need extremely high levels to achieve psychotropic effects)
what is the major site of metabolism of ethanol?
liver
which enzyme catalyses the first reaction in ethanol metabolism?
alcohol dehydrogenase (converts (70-90%) ethanol to acetaldehyde)
where is alcohol dehydrogenase located?
cytoplasm
name two minor pathways of ethanol metabolism.
microsomal ethanol oxidising system (meos) and catalase
what is responsible for most of the harmful effects of alcohol?
acetaldehyde
which enzyme detoxifies acetaldehyde?
acetaldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH)
what is the major mitochondrial form of ALDH?
ALDH2
which polymorphism of ALDH2 has high activity?
ALDH2*1
does ALDH2*2 have high or low activity?
low
what percentage of the alcohol dependent population have low ALDH activity?
5%
true or false... ALDH2*1/ALDH2*2 heterozygotes are protected against alcohol dependence.
false, this is true for ALDH2*2 homozygotes who will experience a Flushing Syndrome
what is disulfiram?
inhibitor of ALDH (induces flushing syndrome)
what is acetaldehyde converted to?
acetic acid
why does alcohol have nutritional value?
the conversion from ethanol to acetaldehyde to acetate provides a substrate that can enter the Citric Acid cycle
true or false... alcohol drives generation of NADH?
true
what is a common vitamin deficiency occurring in alcoholics?
thiamine (vitamin B1)
why is decreased fatty acid utilisation a consequence of ethanol consumption?
depletion of NAD+
why do alcoholics have the tendency to go into lactic acidosis?
pyruvate is converted to lactate in the presence of NADH
name some dietary sources of thiamine
meat, green leafy veggies, legumes, corn, brown rice
name the two thiamine deficiency syndromes.
Wernicke's Encephalopathy, Korsakov's Psycosis
which thiamine deficiency syndrome is associated with paralysis of the extraocular muscles?
Wernicke's Encephalopathy
how is thiamine activated?
by conversion to thiamine pyrophosphate (an ATP dependent reaction)
what is the significance of thiamine pyrophsophate?
it acts as a conenzyme for: pyruvate dehydrogenase, alpha-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase, transketolase
under what circumstances will red cell transketolase activity be reduced?
thiamine deficiency
which enzyme provides an alternative cellular pathway for ethanol metabolism?
phospholipase D
what is responsible for intestinal hyperplasia in the context of alcohol consumption?
phosphatidylethanol
does ethanol or acetaldehyde induce the psychotropic effects of alcohol?
ethanol
true or false... chronic alcohol abuse will result in upregulation of GABA(A) receptors
false, chronically, there is a reduction in GABA(A) receptors.
what are the acute CNS effects of alcohol consumption?
reduced NMDA activity, reduced activity of calcium channels and increased GABA(A)activity