• Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
Reading...
Front

How to study your flashcards.

Right/Left arrow keys: Navigate between flashcards.right arrow keyleft arrow key

Up/Down arrow keys: Flip the card between the front and back.down keyup key

H key: Show hint (3rd side).h key

A key: Read text to speech.a key

image

Play button

image

Play button

image

Progress

1/36

Click to flip

36 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Why are dietary essential fatty acids important?
1) can influence fluidity of membrane
2) can pass BBB
3) deficiency can lead to scaly dermititis, hair loss, poor wound healing
What affects the melting point of fatty acids?
INCREASES w/ chain length
DECREASES with degree of unsat. (double bonds)
What does fatty acid synthesis in humans lead to mainly?
palmitate (16:0)
What is the structure of linoleic acid?
18:2 (omega 6)
What is the structure of arachidonic acid?
20:4 (omega 6)
What is the structure of alpha-linoleic acid?
9:12 omega 3, important for brain
If humans cannot change a fatty acid to a different omega family, how do we derive nutrients from EFAs?
A smaller member of the same family can be used to form a larger fatty acid. (i.e. DHA 22:6 from alpha linolenic) omega 3 fam
Structure/function of TAGs?
unpolar, main storage form of fatty acids. stored in adipocytes
Distinguish difference between phospholipids and glycolipids.
both amphiphatic. phospholipids have glyercol backbone. glycolipids: sphingolipids with sugars attached to ceramide
Composition/function of phosphatidycholine?
-syntehsizes sphingomyeline
-provides lung surfactant (dipalmitoyl-PC)
Composition/function of phosphatidylethanolamine
component of membrane lipids
Composition/function of plasmalogens
analogues of heart and nerve tissue, contain ether linkage in pos 1
Composition/function of phosphatidylserine
negative charge overall
Composition/function of phosphatidylinositol
is cleaved to DAG and IP3 by phospholipase C in Ca 2nd messenger syndrome. 20:4 omega 6 in opsition 2
Composition/function of cardiolipin
found in inner mitochondrial spaces, 4 fatty acids 18:2 omega 6. deficiency leads to Barth's syndrome
Composition/function of sphingomyelin
found in plasma membranes. important for myelin of nerve fibers & grey matter.
Composition/function of cerebrosides
found in brain, PNS, and myelin sheaths.
-ceramide + sugar= cerebrosides
Composition/function of globosides
found in brain, PNS, and myelin sheath.
-cerebrosides+sugar= globosides
Composition/function of gangliosides
found at nerve endings, formed when NANA is linked to globosides.
Discuss lung surfactant in Respiratory distress Syndrome
-deficiency leads to RDS.
-also found in adults whose lung surfactant cells have been damaged.
-lung maturity predicted by lecithin/sphingomyelin ratio. 2 or above related to maturity
Structure and importance of cholesterol?
unpolar, amphipathic.
Steroid hormone synthesis needs cholesterol in:
-Adrenal cortex (cortisol, aldosterone)
-Ovaries
-Testes
What is the fluid mosaic model for membrane structure?
-phospholipid bilayer and embedded proteins which allow easy lateral movement
What is the complex lipid composition of plasma membrane?
-contains integral, peripheral, lipid-anchored proteins
-outside a glycocalyx (layer of glycolipids and glycoproteins)
-shield, cell-cell recognition
Factors regulating membrane fluidity?
-cholesterol inside of bilayer increases
-cholesterol close to polar heads decreases
-shorter fAs/unsat. FAs increase fluidity
Function of cholesterol in plasma membrane?
-increase/decrease fluidity
-stabilizes by increasing fluidity @ low temp, decreasing fluidity @ high temp
Differentiate btwn active and passive transport
passive-doesn't require ATP, relies on permeability of cell membrane
active-ATP, vs. concen grad.
Discuss facilitate diffusion.
-compound can flow into cell when concen grad. allows
-specific, saturable (can measure Tmax and Kt)
Distinguish between primary and secondary active transport.
-Primary-Na/K ATPase
Secondary- concentration grad. of Na by primary active transp.
-cotransport w/ Na
Explain role of ABC transporters (ATP Binding Casette)
-gated Cl- opens after phosphorylation by protein kinase A
-Cl- will diffuse into EC space
-CFTR channel
How do defects in membrane transport lead to cystic fibrosis?
-Defect of CFTR
-sweat cells, ion flow is reverse and re-uptake of Cl- and H2O is defective
-salty sweat on forehead
Which method of facilitated transport of glucose is insulin-dependent?
GLUT-4
-patients w/ diabetes can't use efficiently
Which method of facilitated transport of glucose transports mainly fructose but glucose @ high concentrations?
GLUT-5
-found in IMC and testes
Which method of facilitated transport of glucose has a large Kf and very efficient at high glucose concentrations?
GLUT-2
-found in IMC, liver, kidney, pancreas
Which method of facilitated transport of glucose is are abundant in RBC and brain?
GLUT-1
Which method of facilitated transport of glucose is dominant of neurons?
GLUT-3
What is SGLT's role in secondary active transport?
performs secondary active transport, transports 1 glucose and 2 Na ions into cell