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27 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
What is able to easily dissolve lipids?
What isn't?
-organic solvents
Why do lipids give so much energy?
-when hydrolyzed, they are highly reduced
What makes lipids useful in membranes? (special term).
-they're amphipathic
What are 7 diverse groups of lipids?
-fatty acids
What are 4 functions of lipids?
1) fat droplets in adipose tissue for storage of carbon and energy
2) physical and thermal insulation
3) form lipoproteins to transport lipids to the tissues
4) steroid and eixosanoid hormones
Describe 3 characteristics of fatty acids?
-complex lipids contain fatty acids
-carboxylic acid with a long straight carbon chain 4-30 carbons (most have 14-24)
-can be saturated, no double bonds, monounsaturated or polyunsaturated
What are some common saturated fatty acids?
-palmitic acid (CH3(CH2)14CO2-) (16:0)
-stearate octadecanoic acid (18:0) CH3(CH2)16CO2-
What are some unsaturated monounsaturates?
Oleic Acid (18:1)

What are some polyunsaturates?
When does stearic acid melt?
How about Oleic acid?
-70 C
-14 C
What are some fatty acids that are found as esters in complex lipids?
What makes up micelles?
In digestion, what emulsifies fats?
-What happens after this?
-bile acids in intestine
-emulsifies fats are hydrolysed by lipases
How are fats transported in the blood?
-as lipoprotein complexes (Chylomicrons)
What forms a Ceramide?
-if a fatty acid is linked to the 2 amino group of sphingosine
How do you form a Sphingomyelin?
-add a phosphocholine to the 1 hydroxyl of a Ceramide
What are waxes?
-protective coating on fruits and leaves
-secreted by insects
-long chain hydrocarbons, alcohols, and ketones which may be linked to fatty acids
What are terpenoids?
-biosynthetically built from isoprene
-huge class of plant products
-steroids are terpenoids
What are 5 functions of a membrane according to BioChem?
-exclusion of toxic molecules
-accumulation of cell nutrients
-energy transduction
-signal transduction
-interaction with other cells
What is the difference between liquid crystal membranes and gel membranes?
-liquid crystal have loosely packed heads and disordered tails; thinner membrane
-gel had tightly packed heads and regular tails; thicker membrane
How was phospholipid flipping monitored?
-cells labeled with radioactive phosphorus (P-32)
-cells treated with TNBS to bind amine groups to membrane Phosphatidyl ethanolamine
-at first no molecules with both labels appeared in newly synthesized PE on inner layer
-after 30 min, some PE with both labels found in PE so phospholipids are slowly "flipped" across the membrane
What are 4 membrane proteins?
-transport proteins
-signal receptors
-electron transport
What are two types of transport across a membrane?
What are the divisions of passive transport?
-simple diffusion
-facilitated diffusion (pores and channels, carrier molecules)
What are divisions of active transport?
What does Gramicidin A do?
-makes a cation-specific pore through the membrane
What is the number one example of active transport systems?
-the sodium/potassium pump