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41 Cards in this Set

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List the common diseases linked with the following analytes
a) Glucose
b) Urea and creatine
c)aspartate transaminase
d) Ketone
e) Bilirubin
f)pH
g) Common urine tests
a) Diabetes mellitus
b) Renal disease
c) Myocardial infarction
d) Diabetic ketoacidosis
f) Liver disease
g) Renal acidosis
h) Renal disease
How many million people in the UK have diabetes?
2.6 million
How many people worldwide have diabetes ?
180 Million
How is type 1 diabetes usually manages
Insulin injections or insulin pump
What Percentage of people with dibetes have type 2 diabetes ?
90%
How is type 2 diabetes normally managed?
Diet, exercise and sometimes medication and insulin
What are hormones?
Chemical or biochemical agents which are synthesised by specialised cells in glands and secreted into the blood stream to exert specific effect at distant sites by influencing the activity of cells
What are the two types of regulation systems in the body
a) CNS
b)endocrine
What are endocrine glands?
An aggregation of cells specialised to secrete hormones into the blood stream
What happens when a horomone interacts with a cell ?(4 steps)
1st - Hormone +receptor
2nd- G-protein activation
3rd- second meddenger activation
4th cellular response pathway
What is a G-Protein?
This is an intermediate between hormone /receptor and second messenger
List the 10 most common endocrine glands
a) Pituitary
b) Hypthalamus
c)pineal
d) thyroid
e) parathroids
f)suprarenal
g) Pancreas
h) testes
i) Ovaries
j)Kidneys
How many hormones dose the thyroid release?
2
How is the thyroids production regulated?
THe thyroid is stimulated by TSH (thyroid stimulating hormone) release by the anterior pituity but TSH is inhibited by the thytoid hormones
What dose the hypothalamus's improtant role?
It is a major control centre for homostasis
What dose the hypothalamus do?
It constantly mesures the condition of the body and regulates functions using neves and hormones
How dose the hypothalumus exert its control of the endocrine system ?
through the anterior and posterior pituitary
What is the main difference between the anterior and posterior portions of the pituitary gland ?
The anterior is controlled by a set of hormones while the posterior is controlled by directly connected nerves to the hypothalamus
What is the name of the hormones the hypthalumus uses to control the anterior pituitary ?
Releasing hormones (RH's)
How do the RH's travel in the blood to the anterior pituitary ?
In the blood (portal system)
In adition to RH's what other type of hormones dose the hypothalamus use to control the anterior pituitary gland ?
IH's( inhibitory hormones)
How many major hormones dose the anterior pituitary gland produce ?
6
How are the levels of pituitary hormones regulated ?
Negative feedback loops
What are the names of the two nerves which travel directly from two nuclei in the hypothalamus to the posterior pituitary gland?
Supraoptic and paraventricular
Where are the horomones secreted by the postoriary pituitary gland synthesised
in the cell bodies of the nerves in the two hypothalamic nuclei
How do the hormones travel from the hypothalamic nuclei to the post.pituitary ?
down the nerve axons bia axoplasmic transport to the pituitary
What are the two main hormones produced by the post.pituitary?
ADH and oxytocin ?
What are the three types of hormones?
Peptide , Amino acid and steroid
What do all hormones need to act ?
Receptors either on the cell-surface or inside the cell (cytoplasmic)
What are the three phases of hormone action?
a) Transport
b)Hormone/receptor interaction
c) initiation of biochemical /molecular steps to produce an effect
In terms of Horomone interaction what dose action mean ?
a series of molecular interaction events triggered by the hormone-receptor binding step
what are the two accepted models for the serries of steps in the action of hormones in responsive cells?
a) Intracellular receptor model for steroid and thyroid model
b) Cell surface or membrance receptor model for peptide and protein hormones
how do hormones bind with hormones?
with high specificity and affinity
What dose the binding event trigger?
a multiple step cascade which ends with a specific gene being expressed
What are intracellular hormone receptors sometimes refereed too as ?
Transcription factors
What are hormone bound to when circulating in the blood?
Specific blood-hormone carrier proteins
What dose the use of carrier proteins acheive ?
control of free bound concentration of drug and protection from metabolic processes and increased solubility
What types of hormone travel in the blood without any form of carrier protein?
peptides and epinephrins
How many hormones have control mechanisms ?
All known hormones
What is the bound faction in relation to horomones?
the proportion of hormone associated with the plasma glycoprotein carrier (opposite of free fraction
What is an example of a non-specific carrier protein
Albumin