Study your flashcards anywhere!

Download the official Cram app for free >

  • Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
Reading...
Front

How to study your flashcards.

Right/Left arrow keys: Navigate between flashcards.right arrow keyleft arrow key

Up/Down arrow keys: Flip the card between the front and back.down keyup key

H key: Show hint (3rd side).h key

A key: Read text to speech.a key

image

Play button

image

Play button

image

Progress

1/41

Click to flip

41 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
shuttle required for FA synthesis
citrate shuttle (carries acetyl-CoA from mitochondria to the cytoplasm)
shuttle required for β-oxidation
carnitine shuttle (carries acyl-CoA from cytoplasm to the mitochondria)
carnitine shuttle is inhibited by
malonyl-CoA
carnitine deficiency results in
inability to create acetyl-CoA from LCFA's, i.e., no β-oxidation
(acyl-CoA cannot enter the mitochondria)
ketone bodies are formed from
HMG-CoA
ratio of β-hydroxybuturyate:acetoacetate in DKA
>1
urine test for ketone bodies detects
acetoacetate
function of HMG-CoA reductase
HMG-CoA --> mevalonate
essential FA's (2)
linolenic acid (omega-3)
linoleic acid (omega-6)
function of pancreatic lipase
degrades dietary TG in the small intestine
function of LPL
degrades TG circulating in chylomicrons and VLDL
function of hepatic TG lipase
degrades TG remaining in IDL
function of lecithin-cholesterol acyltransferase (LCAT)
catalyzes esterification of cholesterol
function of cholesterol ester transfer protein (CETP)
mediates transfer of cholesterol esters to other lipoprotein particles
apolipoprotein:

chylomicron
B-48
function of B-48
mediates chylomicron secretion
function of E
mediates uptake of chylomicron remnants and IDL's

(E = extra)
LPL cofactor
CII
function of A-I
activates LCAT
apolipoprotein:

VLDL
IDL
LDL
B-100
functions of B-100 (2)
mediates VLDL secretion

binds LDL receptor
lipoprotein:

secreted by intestinal epithelial cells
delivers dietary TG's to peripheral tissues
delivers dietary cholesterol to the lvier
chylomicron
lipoprotein:

excess causes pancreatitis, lipemia retinalis, and eruptive xanthomas
chylomicron
apolipoproteins found on chylomicrons
B-48
A
C
E
lipoprotein:

Secreted by the liver
delivers hepatic TG's to peripheral tissues
VLDL
lipoprotein:

excess causes pancreatitis
VLDL
apolipoproteins found on VLDL
B-100
C-II
E
lipoprotein:

formed in the degradation of VLDL
delivers TG's and cholesterol to the liver, where it's degraded to LDL
IDL
apolipoproteins found on IDL
B-100
E
lipoprotein:

formed by LPL modification of VLDL in the peripheral tissue
delivers hepatic cholesterol to peripheral tissues
taken up by target cells via receptor-mediated endocytosis
LDL
lipoprotein:

excess causes atherosclerosis, xanthomas, and arcus corneae
LDL
apolipoprotein found on LDL
B-100
lipoprotein:

secreted from the liver and the intestine
mediates transport of cholesterol from the periphery to the liver
acts as a repository for apoC and apoE
HDL
apolipoprotein found on HDL
none
familial dyslipidemias
I - hyperchylomicronemia
IIa - hypercholesterolemia
IIb - combined hyperlipidemia
III - dysbetalipoproteinmia
IV - hypertriglyeridemia
V - mixed hypertriglyceridemia
hyperchylomicronemia:

due to (2)
lipoprotein that's increased
elevated blood levels of
LPL deficiency
altered C-II (LPL cofactor)

chylomicron

TG
cholesterol
hypercholesterolemia:

due to
lipoprotein that's increased
elevated blood levels of
↓ LDL receptors

LDL

cholesterol
combined hyperlipidemia:

due to
lipoprotein that's increased
elevated blood levels of
hepatic overproduction of VLDL

VLDL
LDL

TG
cholesterol
dysbetalipoproteinemia:

due to
lipoprotein that's increased
elevated blood levels of
altered E

VLDL
IDL

TG
cholesterol
hypertriglyceridemia:

due to
lipoprotein that's increased
elevated blood levels of
hepatic overproduction of VLDL

VLDL

TG
mixed hypertriglyceridemia:

due to
lipoprotein that's increased
elevated blood levels of
↑ production of chylomicrons and VLDL
↓ clearance of chylomicrons and VLDL

chylomicrons
VLDL

TG
cholesterol