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63 Cards in this Set

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thiamine pyrophosphate (TPP) is a co-factor for (3)

enzyme function
transketolase (ribulose-5-phosphate --> fructose-6-phosphate)

pyruvate dehydrogenase

(pyruvate --> acetyl-CoA)

α-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase (α-ketoglutarate --> succinyl-CoA)

note: pyruvate dehydrogenase
and α-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase use the same co-factors (the first 4 water-soluble vitamins and lipoic acid)
signs of riboflavin (vit. B2) deficiency (3)
cheilosis (scaling of lips/fissures at corners of lips)
corneal vascularization
angular stomatitis
niacin (vit. B3):

synthesized from
co-factor needed for synthesis
tryptophan
pyridoxine (vit. B6)
causes of niacin (vit. B3) deficiency (3)
Hartnup disease (↓ tryptophan absorption)
malignant carcinoid syndrome (↑ tryptophan breakdown)
INH (↓ pyridoxine)
pantothenate (vit. B5):

component of (2)
acetyl-CoA

fatty acid synthase
pyridoxine (vit. B6) deficiency caused by (2)
INH

oral contraceptives
pyridoxal phosphate is a co-factor for (3)
transaminations (AST & ALT)
decarboxylations
heme synthesis
cobalamin (vit. B12) is a co-factor for (2)
-homocysteine methylation (homocysteine methyl-transferase)

(homocysteine + N-methyl THF --> methionine + THF)

-methylmalonyl-CoA handling

(methylmalonyl-CoA --> succinyl-CoA)
biotin is a co-factor for

examples (3)
carboxylations:

pyruvate carboxylase (pyruvate --> oxaloacetate) - for gluconeogenesis

acetyl-CoA --> malonyl-CoA (for FA synthesis)

propionyl-CoA --> methylmalonyl-CoA (for TCA cycle)
vitamin C is a co-factor for (2)
NE synthesis
(DA --> NE)

5-HT synthesis
(tryptophan --> 5-HT)
delayed wound healing, hypogonadism, and decreased adult hair results from
zinc deficiency
NADH/NAD+ ratio in alcoholism

effects (2)
↑ NADH/NAD+

pyruvate --> lactate
oxaloacetate --> malate

(gluconeogenesis is inhibited)
amino acids needed for purine synthesis
glycine
aspartate
glutamine
DNA replication in eukaryotes begins at

composition
consensus sequence

AT-rich base pairs
largest type of RNA
mRNA
most abundant type of RNA
rRNA
RNA polymerase II inhibited by
α-amanitin
features of promoter sequence (2)
TATA box
CAAT box
function of promoter

location
start of transcription

upstream
function of enhancer

location
binding of TF's (increase transcription)

almost anywhere (upstream, downstream, within an intron)
promoter mutation results in
↓ transcription
spliceosome composed of (2)
primary transcript (introns + exons = hnRNA) and snRNP's
permanent cells (3)
skeletal muscle
cardiac muscle
RBC's
stable cells (2)
hepatocytes
lymphocytes

(induced to leave Go in the case of injury or infection)
labile cells (4)
bone marrow
gut epithelium
skin
hair follicles
secretory (exported) proteins synthesized by

high levels found in (2)
RER

goblet cells (secrete mucous)
plasma cells (secrete Ab's)
N-linked oligosaccharide addition occurs in the
RER
modification of N-linked oligosaccharides occurs in the

modification occurs on
Golgi

asparagine
O-oligosaccharide addition occurs in the

addition occurs on (2)
Golgi

serine
threonine
addition of mannose-6-phophate occurs in the

result
Golgi

protein targeted to lysosome
sulfation of sugars in proteoglycans occurs in the
Golgi
proteoglycan assembly occurs in the
Golgi
coarse facial features, clouded corneas, restricted joint movement, and high plasma levels of lysosomal enzymes is characteristic of
I-cell disease
Chediak-Higashi syndrome

defect
result
microtubule polymerization defect

↓ phagocytosis (decreased mobility of phagocytes)
phosphatidylcholine found in (4)
RBC membranes
myelin
bile
surfactant
phosphatidylcholine is used in the
esterifcation of cholesterol by LCAT
cartilage type:

bones
I
cartilage types:

skin
I and III (reticulin)
cartilage type:

tendons
I
cartilage type:

dentin
I
cartilage type:

fascia
I
cartilage type:

cornea
I
cartilage type:

late wound repair
I
cartilage type:

cartilage (including hyaline)
II
cartilage type:

vitreous body
II
cartilage type:

nucleus pulposus
II
cartilage type:

blood vessels
III (reticulin)
cartilage type:

uterus
III (reticulin)
cartilage type:

fetal tissue
III (reticulin)
cartilage type:

granulation tissue
III (reticulin)
steps of collagen synthesis within fibroblasts

location
synthesis (RER)
hydroxlation (ER)
glycosylation (Golgi)
exocytosis
steps of collagen synthesis outside fibroblasts
proteolytic processing
cross-linking
function of lysyl oxidase
covalently cross links lysine-hydroxylsine
Ehlers Danlos syndrome

due to

results in
faulty collagen synthesis (most commonly type III)

blood vessel instability --> berry aneurysm
Osteogenesis Imperfecta

due to
MOI
signs (4)
abnormal collagen synthesis (most commonly type I)
AD

multiple fractures
blue sclerae
hearing loss
dental imperfections
vimentin stains
CT
desmin stains
muscle
elastin found within (3)
lungs
large arteries
elastic ligaments
elastin is rich in (2)
nonhydroxylated proline and lysine
site of:

fatty acid synthesis
cytoplasm
site of:

gluconeogenesis
mitochondria (oxaloacetate) and cytoplasm
site of:

urea cycle
mitochondria (citriline) and cytoplasm
site of:

heme synthesis
mitochondria and cytoplasm