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13 Cards in this Set

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Use Glycolysis exclusively don't use Fatty Acids
1. Red Blood Cells
2. Brain
Heart Muscles
70% of ATP from Beta-Oxidation of Fatty Acids
Glucose + 2ADP + 2NAD(+) + 2Pi
2pyruvate + 2ATP + 2NADH + H(+) + H2O
Red Blood Cells
oxygen carrier, don't have mitachondria, EPR,
Phosphorylation helps retain what
retain glucose inside the cell since the plasma membrane is impermeable to charged molecules
Why you get lactose in muscles
Not enough NADH when exercising then you get lactate instead to regenerate NADH
isozymes
Are different proteins from one species that catalyze the same chemical reaction.
Hexokinases I, II, III
lower Km values -6 to -4, allosterically inhibited by physiological concentrations of their immediate product Glucose-6-phosphate
Hexokinase IV or Glucokinase
has a higher Km value of -2, at high glucose levels it is active, not allosterically inhibited by Glucose-6-phospate
3rd step- Phosphofructokinase-1
Rxn catalyzed by PFK-1 is metabolically irreversible and is a critical regulatory pt for glycolysis in most cells. Regulation is needed because some hexoses other than glucose can enter the glycolytic pathway by conversion to fructose 6-phosphate. The PFK-1 catalyzed rxn is the first committed step of glycolysis because some substrates bypass the hexokinase-catalyzed step and b/c glucose 6-phosphate can enter other pathways rather than continue through glycolysis.
Liver is mediator how?
takes up lactate uses lactate dehydrogenase in reverse direction (it's differ isozyme) lactate back to pyruvate, can be converted back to glucose and back to muscle cells
Yeast and Bacteria- 2 step process to make
Ethanol
4 Fates of Pyruvate
1. Can be converted to acetyl CoA to be used in metabolic pathways

2. Can be carboxylated to produce Oxaloacetate, an intermediate in the synthesis of glucose

3. Some species it can be reduced to produce ethanol, takes place under anaerobic conditions wither citric acid cycle is unfavorable

4. In some species pyruvate can be reduced to lactate. Lactate can be transported to cells that convert it back to pyruvate for entry into one of the other pathways. Anaerobic