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96 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
name the six roles of lipids
cofactors, pigments, signaling molecules, hydrophobic anchors for proteins, chaperones, emulsifing agents in the digestive tract
T or F fatty acids are conjugated
false
where do double bond occur in monounstaturated and polyunsaturatedd fatty acids
mono=9-10
ploly=12-15
name three chemistry facts about fatty acids
even number of carbons
usually linear
low oxidation state
what influences melting points of fatty acids
chain length and degree of unsaturation
CL=longer chains means higher meltingT
DOU= less double bonds mean higher melting temp
What is the solubilty of Fatty acids
low water solubility
high organic solvent solubilty (benzene)
longer the chain length means lower solublity
Saturated and unsaturated fatty acids of C12-C24 are characterized by what at room temp
saturated=waxy
unstaturated=oily
how are most fatty acids found in blood plasma
as an ester or amide derivative that are less soluble then a FFA
what is the common name of a 16 carbon saturated fatty acid
palmitic acid
what is the common name of a 18 carbon saturated fatty acid
stearic acid
what is the common name of an 18 carbon unsaturated fatty acid
oleic acid
what is the common name of a 18 carbon polyunsaturated fatty acid (9,12)
linoleic acid
what is the common name of a 18 carbon polyunsaturated fatty acid (9,12,15)
alpha linoleic acid
what is the common name of a 20 carbon polyunsaturated fatty acid
arachidonic acid
what types of fatty acids are found in membranes typically sat/unsat
both
what is the major storage lipid
triaclyglycerol
what is a triacylglycerol
three fatty acids joined to a glycerol backbone
what is the simplest lipid made from fatty acids
triacylglycerol
what is an example of mixed and simple fatty acids
mixed=2 or more diff FA
simple=all the same kind of FA
what type of linkage is used in triacylglycerols
ester linkages
what are 3 unique properties of triacylglycerols
1. less polar then substituents
2. lower density than water (float)
3. separate as droplets in cells ( E depot)
why are fats not easily retreivable
insoluble in water
what is the main way to separate lipids
organic solvent extractions
what is a good way to analyse the structure of a fatty acid
mass spectroscopy
what are the two components of a biological wax and how are they joined
fatty acid chain is joined to a long chain alcohol through ester bonds
how do waxes and triacylglycerides differ in melting temp
waxes are higher about 60-100 higher
what are waxes used for in nature
metabolic fuel (plankton)
water proofing
what are waxes used for in the real world
lotions, ointments, polishes and dental molds
what are the six types of structural lipids in membranes
phospholipids
glycolipids
choleterol
ether lipids
chloroplast membrane lipids
archaebacterial ...... lipids
what is a plasmalogen
(platlet activating factor)
similiar to a phospholipid but contains an ether linkage
these are resistant to damage from oxygen free radicals
what are two types of phospholipids
glycerolphospholipid
sphengomyelin
in a glycerolphospholipid what is the usual number of carbons of the two fatty acid chains at c1 and c2
c1=16-18 (saturated)
c2=18-20 (unsaturated)
what is unique about C2 in glycerolphospholipids
it is chiral
what is a lysophospholipid
a glycerolphospholipid missing one fatty acid chain
what is a diacylglycerol
glycerolphospholipid missing the phosphate containing head group
what is an ether lipid
same as a glycerolphospholipid but one of the FA chains is joined be an ether rather than an ester
what are the names and net charges of the six typical head groups that we studied
1. Ethanolamine 0
2. choline 0
3. serine -1
4. glycerol -1
5. inosital 4,5 bisphosphate -4
6. phophotidylglycerol -2
what is sphingosine
a long chain amino alcohol used in the backbone of sphingolipids
what is cereaminde
similiar to diacylglycerol

a sphengolipid missing the phosphate containing head group
what is a sphengomyelin
a sphengolipid with a choline as the head group
what is a ganglioside
a sphengolipid with a complex oligosaccaride containing a negetively charged sialic acid
how are glycolipids and sphingolipids related
glycolipids are shingolipids with sugars as the head groups
what is a cerebroside
a glycolipid with only 1 sugar as the head group
what is a globoside
a glycolipid containing a multistranded sugar chain as the head group
what are the diseases resulting from impaired membrane sphengolipid degradation
Tay-Sacs
Sandhoff's
Fabry's
Goucher's
Niemann-Pick
as lipids go from the individual state to clusters to micelles what is the result in entropy terms
increases as the lipids become more ordered
what is a liposome used for
for drug delivery
what are the three non-covalent forces that hold lipid bilayers together
van der waals between side chains
electrostatic between polar heads
hydrogen binding between polar heads
what are three structural characteristics of a lipid bilayer
flexible
self-sealing
impermeable to charged molecules
what is another name for transverse diffusion
flip flop
what is the enzyme that catalyses transverse diffusion
flippase
what is the enzyme that flips phospolipids to the outside of the membrane to signal apoptosis
scramblase
what types of fatty acid chains favor the paracrystalline state for the lipid bilayer
long saturated fatty acid chains
what types of fatty acid chains favor the fluid state for the lipid bilayer
short unsaturated fatty acid chains
In the lipid bilayer what are the effects of short unsaturated fatty acid chains on viscosity and transition temp
they decrease viscosity and decrease transition temp
T or F cholestrol is amphipathic
T
T or F the nucleus of cholesterol is planar and flexable
F planar and rigid
T or F the alkyl group at C17 of cholesterol is rigid
F it is flexable
where is cholesterol inserted in the lipid bilayer
between glycolipids and phosopholipids
what is the result of having a cholesterol inserted into a lipid bilayer
decreases transitional temp increases viscosity and fattens the membrane
what phospolipid does scramblase act on
phosphotidylserine
what are the three main phospholipids on the outer monolayer of the lipid bilayer
phosphotidylethanolamide
phosphotidylcholine
sphingomyelin ( glycolipids )
what serves as a precursor for membrane synthesis with sphingolipid derivitives
ceramide
Why are sphingolipids more concentrated on the outer monolayer
the mode of synthesis, the head groups are attached to ceramide in the lumen of the golgi. inside of the golgi ends up on the outer surface
what defines a plasmologen
an ether lined alkene at C1 and a choline at C3
what are the physiological responses that platelet-activating factor elicits
platlet aggregation
inflamation
allergic responses
what defines a platlet activating factor
similar to plasmologen

C1=ether linked alkane
C2=acetyl ester (very water soluble)
C3=choline
What is unusual about archeabacteria membranes
the lipids involved span the width of the whole membrane and contain ether linkages at both ends that are resistant to hydrolyses at low Ph and high temp
what is a another scientific name for blood group antigens
ceramide based glycolipids
what are the pathogenic responses the lipopolysaccarides is involved with
TSS, sepsis, ARDS, multiple organ failure syndrome
where are lipopolysaccarides located
the outer membrane of gram negative bacteria, good targets for antibodies
what is about the average protein content for a lipid bilayer
about 50%
what are the agents that can remove a peripheral protein from the membrane
high salt
change in Ph
chelating agent
urea
CO32-
what are the agents that can remove a integral protein from the membrane
detergent

same as bile salts
how are integral proteins and peripheral proteins connected
protein to protein non-covalent interacitions
How is the oreintation of an integral protien determined
by the primary sequence of the amino acid
what is the purpose of having multiple helices of protein in the plane of the membrane
they can have fuctions such as enzymes, transport, or signaling
what is bacteriorhodopsin
7 pass transmembrane protein, typical of the G protein family
what does a hydropathy plot predict
the transmembrane alpha-helical domains (wether or not phobic or philic)

not affective with Beta barrel structures
how many amino acid are required to span the hydrophobic interior of a lipid bilayer
about 20

around 23 if cholesterol is involved
what is the function of a Beta barrel
they are transmembrane domains
what is a beta barrel
20 or more transmembrane segments form beta sheet to line a cylinder this complex is the beta barrel
what type of bond anchors protiens to lipids
covalent
when an internal cysteine or ser group of a protien is added to a palmitoyl group is it done posttranslationally or cotranlationally
postransitlationally
when an amino terminal glycine group of a protien is added to a N-Myristoyl group is it done posttranslationally or cotranlationally
cotranslationally
why is carboxyterminal binding of cysteine to farnesyl important in cancer research
this complex is important in GTP binding
In N-linked oligosaccarides what is the molecule that the oligosaccarides are formed on before being added Asn
dolichol
In N-linked Oligo's after the sugars are added to the Asn what is added and what is removed and where does this take place
mannose is removed and new sugars and sialic acid is put on. done in the golgi
how are O-linked oligo's formed and where
stepwise directly added to Ser/Thr. all done in the golgi
what is the main glycoprotein in RBC's
glycophorin
what is a glycophorin
single pass transmembrane glygoprotein for RBC's
where does conventional glycosylation occur
the plasma membrane, secretory, lysosomal proteins
where does complex carbohydrate N and O linked take place
N=ER then modified in the golgi
O=Golgi

these both end up on the outside of the membrane they join.
what is a proteoglycan
a GAG chain attached to Ser of a Gly-X-Gly sequence of core protein by a trisaccharide bridge.
what is the main site of biological activity in a proteoglycan
the GAG chain

this is also the major bulk of the proteoglycan
what is the main component of cartilage and connective tissue
proteoglycan