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135 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Proteins are made of
23 types of amino acids
Proteins account for
50% of the organic material in the body (17% total BW)
Proteins provide
4.32 calories per gram
Proteins should be about
12-15% of the daily caloric intake
Carbohydrates should be about
50% of the daily caloric intake (600 calories of simple CHO)
To prevent significant protein breakdown
100 grams of CHO are needed everyday
Carbohydrates provide
4.19 calories per gram
The essential fatty acids are
Linoleic, linolenic and arachidonic acid (provided by plants)
Fats provide
9.46 calories per gram
8 original essential amino acids
Lys, thr, met, val, isoleucine, tryptophan, leu, phenylalanine
Thiamine deficiency leads to
Beriberi – neurological disorder that leads to heart failure
Ascorbic acid deficiency leads to
Scurvy – rotting teeth and gums, spontaneous hemorrhage
Riboflavin deficiency leads to
Anemia, cracking of corners of mouth
Folic acid deficiency leads to
Anemia, weight loss and weakness
Symptoms of vitamin A toxicity include
Nystagmus, diplopia, ocular muscle palsies
Kreb’s cycle takes place in the
Inner compartment of the mitochondria – the matrix
Nucleolus is the site of
Ribosomal assembly
RER is the site of
Protein synthesis
SER is the site of
Lipid synthesis
Microtubules are composed of
Microtubules provide a
Supportive framework and a guide for organelle movement
Microfilaments are made of
Microfilaments interact with
Non polar amino acids are
Glutamine and serine
Polar amino acids are
Asparagines and threonine
Basic amino acids
Histidine and threonine
Acidic amino acids
Aspartic acid and glutamic acid
A peptide bond involves a linkage of
Globular proteins
Tightly folded … water soluble…most enzymes are globular
Fibrous proteins
Water insoluble … serve a structural or protective function
Dimer…In secretions like saliva, sweat, tears, breast milk
Protects against parasites …hypersensitivity/ allergy rxns
Most abundant…crosses the placenta
Ist antibody to be produced…2-3 days after exposure
Km, Michaelis constant
Substrate concentration at which V = ½ Vmax
Michaelis-menten equation
V0 = (Vmax [S]) / (Km + [S])
Competitive inhibitor
Resembles the substrate…binds to the same site
uncompetitive inhibitor
Binds to the enzyme-substrate complex – not free enzyme
Two alpha and two beta subunits
Oxygenation of hemoglobin
Causes quaternary changes to the R state
Deoxygenation of hemoglobin
Causes iron to move into the heme plane – T state
Structural changes of hemoglobin (R to T)
Take place entirely across the alpha1-beta2 interface
Lysozyme destroys the bond between
NAM and NAG in the cell wall peptidoglycan
Serine proteases include
Trypsin and chymotrypsin
Endergonic rxns
Energy input required
Exergonic rxns
Energy produced
G coupled rxns use energy from hydrolysis of
ATP to GTP, for thermodynamically unfavorable reaction
RED OX reactions
Reducing agent (electron donor) oxidizing agent (acceptor)
Henderson-Hasselbach reaction
pH = pKa + log ([A-] / [HA])
pH = - log [H+]
pKa = - log (Ka)
Acetyl CoA is the common product of
Carbohydrate, fatty acid and amino acid catabolism
Acetly carbons are oxidized
To CO2 in the TCA cycle yielding NADH and FADH2
NADH and FADH2 pass electrons to
O2 producing H2O in oxidative phosphorylation
Glucose and fructose
Glucose and galactose
Glucose and glucose
Glycosaminoglycans are polysaccharides…
with one negatively charged carboxylate or sulfate group
Examples of GAGs are
Chondroitin sulfate, keratan sulfate, heparin
10 rxns in the cytosol…produces pyruvate and 2 ATP
In the presence of oxygen Pyruvate in converted to
Acetyl CoA and enters the TCA cycle in the mitochondria
Pentose monophosphate shunt
In cytosol…Generates reducing power
Products of the Pentose phosphate pathway
12 NADPH and ribose 5-monophosphate(for DNA,RNA etc)
Glycogen is formed through the transfer of
Glucose from UDP glucose to a growing chain
Complexes of oxidative phosphorylation (OP)
NADH-Q reductase, cytochrome reductase and oxidase
OP pumps protons from
The matrix side > cytosolic side of the inner mito membrane
One molecule of glucose produces about
30 ATP when completely oxidized to CO2 and H2O
Phosphoglycerides are phospholipids with
A glycerol backbone with alcohol and 2 fatty acids attached
Sphingomyelins are phospholipids with
A sphingosine backbone with phosphoryl choline and FA
Cholesterol functions in
Membrane fluidity and as a precursor for steroid hormones
Beta oxidation is the process in which (occurs in mito)
Fatty acids are broken down into acetyl CoA groups
1st step of beta oxidation is a – dehydration
results in a trans double bond and 1 FADH2
2nd step of beta oxidation involves – hydration
Addition of H2O over the double bond – yields an alcohol
3rd step of beta oxidation in another – dehydration
Dehydration – carbonyl oxidized to a ketone – yields 1NADH
4th step of beta oxidation involves - transesterification
CoA-SH – acetyl CoA groups break off – enter TCA cycle
First intermediate in gluconeogenesis is
Oxalacetate – last intermediate of TCA cycle
Ketone bodies include
Aectoacetic acid, beta hydroxybutyrate and acetone
Fatty acid synthesis occurs in the cytosol as a
4 step process – 2 carbons added at a time
Molecule used in FA synthesis for chain lengthening
Malonate (3 carbons) – binds to –SH of acyl carrier protein
1st step of FA synthesis – condensation
Acetyl group adds to malonyl CoA – CO2 leaves (4C piece)
2nd step of FA synthesis – reduction
Requires NADPH – reduces carbonyl to an alcohol
3rd step of FA synthesis – dehydration
Leaves a trans double bond b/t alpha and beta carbons
4th step of FA synthesis – reduction
Requires NADPH – leaves a 4C saturated acyl group
FA elongation takes place in the
Mitochondria or SER
Precursor to steroid hormones…
Cholesterol – side chains removed from D ring
Steroid hormones include
Mineralocorticoids, glucocorticoids, androgens, estrogens, progesterone
Adenine and guanine
Thymine (DNA only), cytosine and uracil (RNA only)
Adenine binds to
Thymine (2 H-bonds)
Guanine binds to
Cytocine (3 H-bonds)
Under physiological conditions DNA exists in the
B form
Termination codons
Initiation codon
AUG - methionine
DNA is super coiled in a
Left handed helix
Ribose contains an
-OH (hydroxyl) group at the 2’ position (makes it less stable)
Initiation of transccription involves a
DNA dependent RNA polymerase
Transcription occurs at the
5’ end of RNA or at the 3’ end of DNA
RNA is synthesized in a
5’ to 3’ direction…nucleotides added at the 3’ end
Transcription unit extends from
Promoter to terminator
To help protect the mRNA from hydrolytic enzymes a
5’ cap made of modified guanosine triphosphate is added
Ribosomes attach to the
5’ cap
The 3’ end of mRNA is modified with a
Poly-A tail made of 200 adenine nucleotides
The RNA in the nucleus contains introns and exons
Known as heterogenous nuclear RNA (hnRNA)
The introns are excised from the hnRNA forming
mRNA that enters the cytoplasm
60S ribosomal subunit contains
5S, 5.8S and 28S rRNA
40S ribosomal subunit contains
18 S rRNA
5’ end of tRNA is
3’ end of tRNA has a (sequence CCA)
Hydroxyl group and an amino acid attached
DNA replication is
Semi conservative and bi-directional
DNA polymerases
Catalyze polymerization (elongation in the 5’ to 3’ direction)
DNA ligase acts to join the
two DNA polynucleotides through a phosphodiester bond
Primase synthesizes the
RNA primers needed for replication of the lagging strand
Replication fork is unzipped by the
ATP driven helicases
Single standed binding proteins (SSBs)
Keep the DNA unwound and single stranded
The leading stand is continuously synthesized by
DNA polymerase III holoenzyme
The gaps between Okazaki fragments are filled by
DNA ploymerase I (also removes the RNA primer)
Complementary base pairs are held together by
Hydrogen bonds
Nucleotides are held together by
Covalent bonds
Transcription (DNA > RNA) takes place in the
Translation (RNA > protein) takes place in the
Ribosomal subunits are made in the
P site of a ribosome holds the
Growing ploypeptide chain
A site of a ribosome holds the
tRNA holding the next amino acid
Synthesis of the polypeptide chains begins with the
Amino end and ends with the carboxyl end
The first tRNA with methionine (mRNA AUG)
Attaches to the P site
The binding of a tRNA to the A site requires
GTP energy
Group I hormones…
Intracellular receptors…affect gene expression (steroids)
Group I hormones are…
Lipophilic, have a long half life
Group II hormones…
Have membrane receptors and use intracellular messengers
Group II hormones are…
Hydrophilic and have a short half life, use 2nd messengers
All receptors are made of …
Cyclic AMP – second messenger
Formed by cyclization of ATP by adenylate cyclase
Cyclic GMP – second messenger
Used by atriopeptins found in cardiac tissues (ANF)