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66 Cards in this Set

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Common chemical groups
C-O Bond: Alcohol, aldehydes, ketones, carboxylic acid, ehter, acid anhydride.
C-S: Suflhydryl, disulfide.
C-N: amino, quaternary amine
Ester and amides: ester, thioester, phosester, amide
Five common reactions
condensation, redox, cleavage, rearrangement, group transfer
enantiomer
sterioisomers that ar emirror images of each other
diastereomers
isomers that have opposite configurations at one or more chiral center but are not mirror images of each other.
epimers
molecules that differ at only one chiral carbon.
essential amino acids
leucine, isoleucine, lysine, valine, phenylalanin, tryptophan, threonine, methionine, histidine, arginine
hydrogen bonds
electronegative forces from atom such as oxygen to electopositive forces of hydrogen.
ionic bonds
bonds between formal negative and formal pos charged atoms.
van der waals
induced electopositive force produced on one atom as it approaches another atom
hydrophobic interactions
force producee when nonsoluble molecules are in polar solutions. water has reduced entropy when it can surround large molecules rather than smaller molecules.
cyclic form of aldose
pyranose (5 carbons)
cyclic form of ketose
furanose (4 carbons)
glycosaminoglycans
long chain of repeating amino sugar dissacharides. Lots of negative.
what is not able to be a reducing sugar ever?
ketose
amino acid without a chiral carbon
glycine
essential amino acids
histidine, methionine, threonine, phenolalanine, isoleucine, leucine, lysine, valine, arganine, tryptophans
important amino acids not found in proteins
creatine, carnitine, taurine, etc..
when pH>pKa
will deprotonate
pH<pKa
protonates
four weak forces
hydrogen bonds, ionic, hydrophobic, van der waals
α H chain
IgA: first line of defense. In saliva, tear ducts, etc..
-all are based on C region of H chains
γ H chain
IgG: Passed mother to child. Found in blood.
μ H chain
IgM: first antibody to appear in an immune response
ε H chain
IgE: mediates allergic reactions
Collagen
three collagen proteins form triple helix (proline, 4-hydroxyproline, lysine). Stabilized with H-bonds
fibrils
ordered arrays of collagen triple helices. Stabilized by covalent bonding. Crosslinks b/w them dependent on Vitamin C
ligase
join molecules with condensation
lyases
split molecules with water byproduct.
serine proteases
splits protein in to smaller polypeptides. Specificity determined by binding pocket. ex: chymotrypsin and trypsin
michaelis-menton equation
V=Vmax[S]/Km+[S], Km is inversely proportional to affinity.
hexokinase and glucokinase
hexo: found in most cells, gluco: found only in liver
glucose low in most cells, high in liver, therefore hexo has high affinity and gluco does not
lineweaver-burke
1/V= Km/Vmax(1/[S])+ 1/Vmax
X int: -1/Km
types of cofactors
coenzymes and essential ions
types of essential ions
activator ions (loose) and metal ions of metalloenzymes(tight)
types of coenzymes
cosubstrates(loose) and prosthetic groups(tight)
niacin is vitamin source for what?
NAD and coenzyme A-oxidation/reduction and transfer of acyl groups
Riboflavin B2 is source for what?
FAD and FMN-oxidation reduction
Vitamin B1 for what?
TPP-transfer of two carbon fragments contain carboxyl group (used in synthesis of acetylcholine)
nicotinamide coenzymes
used in reactions involving hydride ion
NAD+/NADH
acts like a true cosubstrate: binds like substrate and exits like product
biotin
very important for metabolism. used as is
Vitamin B6
PLP-carries out reactions with amino acids
lipoamide
formed from lipoic acid. similar to coenzyme a-acyl group carrier. also has redox properties
lipid soluble vitamins
A,K,D,E
Heme
Example of prosthetic group. Also biotin and lipoamide.
four types of lipids
fatty acids,and isoprenoids (steroids, lipid vitamins and terpenes)
two of the four types of fatty acids we studied
sphingolipids and triacylglycerides
types of sphingolipids
ceremides-> sphingomyelins, cerebrosides
Saturated fatty acids, carbons 12,14,16,18,20
lauric acid, myeristic acid, palmitic acid, stearic acid, arachidic acid
unsaturated fatty acids, 20 carbonds
arachidonic acid, has four double bonds-key fatty acid in signaling and synthesis of key biomolecules-made from linoleic or linolic acid b/c can't be made de novo.
triacylglycerols
very hydrophobic. Storage mechanism for fatty acids. fatty acids cleaved by lipases.
glycerophospholipds
similar to triacylglycerols except third carbon has phosphate moiety.
glycerophospholipid head groups (5)
phosphatidylethanolamines, phosphatidylserines, phosphatidylcholines,phosphatidylinositols, and other phosphatidylglycerol
cerebroside, gangliosides
sphingolipids with single sugar or polysacharide attached.
what controls ABO bloodtyping?
glycolipids and glycoproteins
what is the glycocalyx
network of glycoproteins and proteoglycans that extend outward from the cell.
mammalian cells that have glycocalyx
platelets, endothelial cells, sperm, fertilized ovum, and cancer cells
what are glycosaminoglycans
mixed monosaccharides with repeating disaccharide units. one of the mono. is always an amino sugar.
four classes of GAGs
hyaluronic acid, condroitin sulfates, heparin, keratin sulfates
what is a proteoglycan
GAG attached to a protein core. bottle brush structure. lots of neg charge leads to long structure.
what residue is involved in n-linked glycoprotein
asparagine
which residues are in o-linked glycoproteins
serine, threonine and hydroxylysine
vant hoff's law
pi=CRT (osmotic pressure directly prop. to concentration of osmotically active particles)
osmolality
osmoles/kg
osmolarity
osmoles/liter
primary components of serum osmolarity
glucose, Na, HCO3-, Cl and urea