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17 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
normal cells
anchorage dependent
contact inhibited
growth factor dependent
transformed cells
anchorage independent
no contact inhibition
grown factor independent
HNPCC (hereditary nonpolypsis colorectal cancer)
defective in mismatch repair (MSH2, MLH1, PMS2)

develop tumors in colon, endometrium, ovary
Microsatellite instability
used to classify mismatch repair status of tumor. Microsatellite (repeated sequence of DNA)
Xeroderma pigmentosum
predisposition to skin cancer
faulty UV repair
caused by mutations in any of the seven genes involved in UV repair
Breast and ovarian cancer
BRCA1 & 2 genes are defective.

Genes are involved in homologous recombination and homology dependent repair of DNA double strand breaks
Colorectal cancer
10-20% mismatch repair deficient

treatment is dictated by stage
Helicobacter pylori, ulcers & gastric cancer
causes chronic inflammation of stomach lining

major causes of gastric and duodenal ulcers, and gastric.

induces chronic inflammation of the stomach and gradual changes in the cells, resulting in the development of malignancy
Canine transmissible venereal tumor
tumor cells transmitted from one dog to another
HPV
cervical cancer. small, double stranded DNA viruses that infect epithelial tissue.

Viral proteins E6 and E7 promote tumorgenesis by inactivating tumor suppressor genes (p53 and Rb)
Chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML)
proliferation of myeloid cells in the bone marrow.

philidelphia translocation t (9;22) : creates gene expressing BCR-ABL polypeptide. ABL encodes tyrosine kinase that initiates signaling cascade that activates cell proliferation

treated with kinase inhibitor = imatinib = gleevec (competitive inhibition)
Breast cancer treatment
tamoxifen: blocks estrogen receptor

inhibitor of aromatase: enzyme used to convert testosterone to estrogen
Retinoblastoma
Rb (tumor suppressor) protein is defective.

sporadic cases = mutations in both genes

hereditary = single mutation only because one already mutated

unphosphorylated RB binds and represses E2F transcription factor (inactive)

phosphorylated Rb is active.

Loss of Rb drives cell into S phase at reckless speed.
Cmyc - transcriptional activator - drives cell into S phase
1) increased expression of cyclin D, phospho RB, frees E2F

2) increased expression of SCF, degrades CDKinhibitor, phospho Rb

3) increased expression of E2F
Apoptosis
products of programmed self destruction do not injure organism

preps cell to be digested by phagocytes
Autophagy
using own lysosomal machinery

recycling of cellular components
Necrosis
uncontrolled cell death which results in cellular debris damaging organism, can lead to autoimmunity