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91 Cards in this Set

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carbohydrates
generally sugars and polymers of sugars; the primary source of energy for the cell
monosaccharide
the simplest type of carbohydrate consisting of a single saccharide unit
disaccharide
a sugar composed of 2 monosaccharides joined through an oxygen atom bridge
glycosidic bond
the bond between the hydroxyl group of the C-1 carbon of one sugar and a hydroxyl group of another sugar
oligosaccharide
an intermediate-sized carbohydrate composed of from 3 to 10 monosaccharides
polysaccharide
a large, complex carbohydrate composed of long chains of monosaccharides
ketose
a sugar that contains a ketone (carbonyl) group
aldose
a sugar that contains an aldehyde (carbonyl) group
triose
a 3-carbon monosaccharide
stereoisomers
a pair of molecules having the same structural formula and bonding pattern but differing in the arrangement of the atoms in space
stereochemistry
the study of the spatial arrangement of atoms in a molecule
enantiomers
stereoisomers that are nonsuperimposable mirror images of one another
chiral molecule
molecule capable of existing in mirror-image forms
asymetric carbon
a chiral carbon; a carbon bonded to four different groups
glyceraldehyde
an aldotriose that is the simplest carbohydrate; phosphorylated forms of glyceraldehyde are important intermediates in cellular metabolic reactions
Fischer Projection
a two-dimensional drawing of a molecule, which shows a chiral carbon at the intersection of two lines and horizontal lines representing bonds projecting out of the page and vertical lines representing bonds that project into the page
glucose
an aldohexose, the most abundant monosaccharide; it is a component of many disaccharides, such as lactose and sucrose, and of polysaccharides, such as celllose, starch, and glycogen
hemiacetal
the family of organic compounds formed via the reaction of one molecule of alcohol with a ketone in the presence of an acid catalyst
anomers
isomers of cyclic monosaccharides that differ from one another in the arrangement of bonds around the hemiacetal carbon
Haworth projection
a means of representing the orientation of substituent groups around a cyclic sugar molecule
fructose
a ketohexose that is also called levulose and fruit sugar; the sweetest of all sugars, abundant in honey and fruits
hemiketal
the family of organic compounds formed via the reaction of one molecule of alcohol with a ketone in the presence of an acid catalyst
galactose
an aldohexose that is a component of lactose (milk sugar)
ribose
a five-carbon monosaccharide that is a component of RNA and many coenzymes
Benedict's reagent
a buffered solution of Cu2+ ions that can be used to test for reducing sugars or to distinguish between aldehydes and ketones
reducing sugar
a sugar that that can be oxidized by Benedict's or Tollens' reagents; includes all monosaccharides and most disaccharides
maltose
a disaccharide composed of alpha-D-glucose and a second glucose molecule in alpha (1 to 4) glycosidic linkage
nonreducing sugar
a sugar that cannot be oxidized by Benedict's or Tollens' reagent
lactose
a disaccharide composed of beta-D-glucose in beta (1 to 4) glycosidic linkage; milk sugar
galactosemia
a human genetic disease caused by the inability to convert galactose to a phosphorylated form of glucose (glucose-1-phosphate) that can be used in cellular metabolic reactions
lactose intolerance
the inability to produce the degestive enzyme lactose, which degrades lactose to galactose and glucose
sucrose
a disaccharide composed of alpha-D-glucose and beta-D-fructose in (alpha 1 to beta 2) glycosidic linkage; table sugar
amylose
a linear polymer of alpha-D-glucose molecules bonded in alpha (1 to 4) glycosidic linkage that is a major component of starch; a polysaccharide storage form
amylopectin
a highly branched form of amylose; the branches are attached to the C-6 hydroxyl by alpha (1 to 6) glycosidic linkage; a component of starch
glycogen
a long, branched polymer of glucose stored in liver and muscles of animals; it consists of a linear backbone of alpha-D-glucose in alpha (1 to 4) linkage, with numerous short branched attached to the C-6 hydroxyl group by alpha (1 to 6) linkage
cellulose
a polymer of beta-D-glucose linked by beta (1 to 4) glycosidic bonds
monosaccharides
1) glucose
2) fructose
- one sugar (saccharide) molecule
disaccharides
1) sucrose
2) lactose
- 2 monosaccharides linked
polysaccharides
1) starch
2) glycogen
3) cellulose
- chains of linked monosaccharide units
glyceraldehyde
triose
erythrose
tetrose
ribose
pentose
glucose
hexose
D-glyceraldehyde
aldotriose
dihydroxyacetone
ketotriose
stereoisomers, ex
1) D-glucose
2) D-mannose
3) D-galactose
- have the same chemical formula (C6H12O6) but differ in the positions of the hydroxyl groups on their asymmetric carbons
enantiomers are also called?
optical isomers
fructose
1) Levulose
2) fruit sugar
- found in honey, corn syrup, and sweet fruites
galactose
1) in lactose/milk sugar
beta-D-galactoseamine
a component of the blood group antigens
ribose
1) exists mainly in the cyclic form
2) backborn in DNA, RNA
reducing sugars
all monosaccharides and the disaccharides except sucrose
most important reduced sugar is?
deoxyribose (in DNA)
sucrose is formed by linking?
alpha-D-glucose with beta-D-fructose
glycosidic ling of sucrose
1,2
lactose
beta-D-galactose and alpha-D-glucose
glycosidic bond of lactose
1,4
maltose
linking 2 alpha-D-glucose
glycosidic bond of maltose
1,4
maltose is formed when?
starch is partly hydrolyzed
cellobiose
linking 2 beta-D-glucose
glycosidic link of cellobiose
1,4
cellobiose comes from?
hydrolyzed cellulose
cellulose
1) major structural polymer in plants
2) polysaccharide
3) a linear homopolymer
cellulose is composed of?
beta-D-glucose units linked beta-1,4
the repeating disaccharide of cellulose is?
beta-cellobiose
starch
1) polysaccharide
2) storage form of glucose found in plants
starches are polymers of --- linked glucose?
alpha
starch with 1,4 link
1) polymer is linear
2) called "amylose"
starch with 1,4 and 1,6 links
1) polymer is branched
2) called "amylopectin"
amylose
usually assumes a helical configuration with 6 glucose units per turn
glycogen
1) storage carbohydrates in animals
2) a branched chain polymer
glycogen is similar with?
amylopectin, but it has more frequent branching (about every 10 residues)
glycogen is stored in>
liver and muscle cells
glycoproteins
contain carbohydrate redisued on protein chains
ex. antibodies-chemicals
the carbohydrate part of the glycoprotein plays a role in determining?
the part of the antigen molecule to which the antibody binds
the human blood groups depend on the?
oligosaccharide part of the glycoprotein on the surface of erythrocyte cells
What determine blood group?
the terminal monosaccharide of the glycoprotein at the nonreucing end
terminal sugar for type A
N-acetylgalactosamine
terminal sugar for type B
alpha-D-galactose
terminal sugar for type AB
1) N-acetylgalactosamine
2) alpha-D-galactose
terminal sugar for type O
none
tooth decay is due to breakdown of?
sucrose into glucose and fructose by enzyme
What enzyme is responsible for breakdown of sucrose into glucose and fructose?
glucosyl transferase
glucosyl transferase is located on?
cell membranes of bacteria, Streptococcus mutans
the glucose molecules are then coupled together is large strands referred to as?
dextrans
frctose is used by the bacteria for?
energy
lactic acid is secreted as a?
waste product
this lactic acid secreted by bacteria in the plaque is kept in close contact with enamel, causing?
erosion and cavities
sucrose
1) table sugar
2) linked to dental caries
3) nonreducing
4) glycosidic O is part of an acetal and ketal
sucrose is composed of?
alpha-D-glucose and beta-D-fructose