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22 Cards in this Set

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How many amino acids make up a protein?
-20 common amino acids
What are the three main constituents of amino acids?
-carboxylate group
-amino group
-side chain (R)
What are the base units of pholysaccharides?
Saccharide monomers
Carbohydrates (also known as saccharides)
What are nucleotide moners composed of?
-a five-carbon sugar
-a heterocyclic nitrogenous base
-phosphate groups
What are polynucleotides?
-nucleic acid biopolymers that are composed of nucleotide monomers
What makes up lipids (compared to CHO's)?
-carbon and hydrogen, but less oxygen
What are the simplest lipids known as? What do they look like?
-Fatty acids
-long chain hydrocarbons with a carboxylate group at one end. Often components of glycerophospholipids
What is the definition of a gunctional group?
-the specific parts of molecules involved in biochemical reactions
What are the components of a prokaryotic cell?
-cell membrane
-cytoplasm
-ribosomes
-nucleoid *No enclosed nucleus!
-motile unit (flagella/Pili)
What are the components of a eukaryotic cell?
-nucleus
-ER
-Golgi apparatus
-mitochondria/chloroplasts
-other vesicles
What part of the eukaryote cell is continuous with the nuclear envelope?
-ER
What is the endoplasmic reticulum?
-network of membrane sheets and tubules extending from the nucleus
What is the Golgi apparatus?
-responsible for modification and sorting of some biomolecules
What are mitochondria?
Chloroplasts?
-the main sites of energy transduction in aerobic cells
-sites of photosynthesis in plants, green algae
What do chloroplasts consist of?
-granum
-outer and inner membrane
-stroma
-thylakoid membrane
What are lysosomes?
-contain specialized digestive enzymes
What are peroxisomes?
-carry out oxidative reactions in animal and plant cells
What are vacuoles?
-fluid-filled vesicles, used as storage sites for water, ions, and nutrients such as glucose
What are the "strings" that make up the cytoskeleton?
-actin filaments which form ropelike threads
-microtubules which are rigid fibers and packed into bundles
What are microtubules used for?
-an internal skeleton
-form the mitotic spindle during mitosis
-form movement structures such as flagella and cilia
What is the broad procedure of cellular fractionation?
-homogenize cell to release contents
-separate (or fraction) using different methods such as centrifugation
-depending on speed (g force), items separate uniquely
What is the equation for G-force?
F =(1.119 E^-5)(rpm)^2 * r