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23 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
Define organic chemistry
The study of all compounds that contain bonds b/t carbon atoms.
Name 2 reasons why carbon compounds are so interestine?
1. Can form 4 covalent bonds, can bond with many elements.
2. Can bond to other carbon atoms, single, double, or triple bonds.
Describe the types of carbon-carbon bonds.
1. single
2. double
3. triple covalent bonds
Define macromolecule.
Giant molecules
What is polymerization
The process which builds large compounds from smaller molecules
Contrast monomer and polymer.
monomer - single building block molecule

polymer - a combination of monomers
List the 4 groups of organic compounds found in living things.
1. carbohydrates
2. lipids
3. proteins
4. nucleic acids
Name the monomer of starches
sugar molecules in large chains.
single sugar molecules
ex. - glucose, fructose, galactose
chains of monosaccharides - glycogen (animal starch) plant starch

cellulose - most abundent on earth. ex. - cotton, paper
List 3 categories of lipids
fats - made of glycerol
oils - liquid at room temp.
waxes - fatty acid and alcohol
steroids - hormones
Describe the use of lipids
stored energy, building blocks of biological membranes.
Describe the structure of a lipid. What are its monomers?
( pg. 46)
Occur when a glycerol molecule combines with fatty acids
Saturated fatty acid
single bonds b/t C atoms of fatty acid
Unsaturated fatty acids
double bond (at least one) (unsaturated) betweenC atoms of fatty acid
List the components of a nucleic acid. What are its monomers?

ribose ( single strand)
deoxyribose ( double helix)
List the components of a protein
C, H, O, N
What are monomers
Amino Acids
List the 3 components of an amino acid.
How many are found in nature?
amino group - NH2
Carboxyl group - COOH
R-group - different in each amino acid.

20 in nature
Name 3 uses of proteins.
1. structural (skin, bone)
2. control the tates of reactions - enzymes
3. transport substances and fight disease
Explain why proteins are all shaped differently.
Because the protein chains ( made of amino acids) are twisted and folded in many different arrangements.