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36 Cards in this Set

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held together by tropomyosin
actin
contains heads whose movement provides a 'rowing' action
myosin
binding sites on it are exposed by calcium action
actin
makes up most of the thin filaments
actin
Which neurotransmitter is responsible for initiating muscle contraction?
Acetylcholine
What features of cardiac muscle allow communication between muscle cells?
intercalated discs containing gap junctions and desmosomes
striation
occurs in both skeletal and cardiac muscle
number of nuclei per cell
Cardiac has one nucleus/cell, skeletal are multi-nucleated/cell
communication between cells
cardiac muscles can communicate muscle contraction to next cell, while skeletal muscles cells contraction in isolation
position of nucleus in cells
cardiac muscle has central nucleus whereas skeletal muscle cells have nuclei on periphery
list the substances which may initiate smooth muscle contraction
neurotransmitters, hormones, chemicals
why does smooth muscle not appear striped or striated like striated muscle?
contractile proteins not arranged in sarcomeres
erector pilli muscles
multi-unit
small arteries
visceral
large airways
multi unit
stomach
visceral
large arteries
multi unit
circular muscle in iris
multi unit
bladder
visceral
list the processes by which muscles obtain ATP energy
phosphagen system; glycogen-lactic acid system; aerobic system
What do we call the process of converting glucose to lactate in the muscles and then lactate to glucose in the liver
Cori cycle
Name two types of smooth muscle
visceral and multi unit
what protein replaces troponin in smooth muscle?
calmodulin
Why are both calcium and magnesium necessary for smooth muscle contraction?
Ca binds to calmodulin -> myosin head binds to actin; Mg is part of MgATPase which provides the energy for contraction
What important molecule is used to transfer high energy phosphate groups in the phosphagen system?
Creatine phosphate
What are two advantages of the Cori cycle
increases glucose availability and decreases acidity
Why is a good supply of oxygen to the heart essential?
Cardiac muscle acts continuously and is therefore dependent on aerobic processes.
What are the tree types of muscle?
skeletal, cardial, smooth
T/F the cells in skeletal muscle lie parallel to each other
True
What does the sarcoplasm contain?
myoglobin and glycogen
T/F skeletal cells are multi nucleated
true
What are the functional contractile units in myofibrils?
Sarcomeres
T/F each myofibril is surrounded by sarcoplasmic reticulum
True
What holds actin molecules together?
tropomyosin
Which protein is attached to the tropomyosin?
Troponin
T/F Troponin contains calcium ion binding sites
True