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39 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
atom
basic unit of matter
nucleus
center of the atom with protons and neutrons
Electron
negatively charged particle
Element
pure substance entirely of one atom
isotope
Atoms of the same element that differ in the number of neutrons
Compound
substance formed by the chemical combination of two or more elements in definite proportions.
Ionic Bond
formed when one or more electrons are transferred from one atom to another
Covalent Bonds
formed when electrons are shared between atoms
van der Waals forces
attraction between oppositely charged forces
Cohesion
attraction between molecules of the same substance
Adhesion
attraction between molecules of different substances
Mixture
material composed of two or more elemnts physically mixed together
Solution
mixture of two evenly distributed substances
Solute
substance that it is dissolved
solvent
substance in which the solute dissolves
suspension
mixtures of water and nondissolved material
pH scale
indicate the concentration of H+ ions in a solution
acid
any compound that forms H+ ions
Base
compound that produces hydroxide ions
Buffers
weak acids or bases that can react with strong ones to prevent sharp, sudden changes in pH
Monomers
small unit that can form larger unit (polymers)
Polymers
groups of monomers
Carbohydrates
Compounds of carbon, hydrogen and oxygen
Monosaccharides
single sugar molecules
Polysaccrides
large macromolecules formed from monosaccrides
lipids
large and varied group of biological molecules generally not soluble in water
Nucleic acids
macromolecules containing hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, carbon, and phosphorus
Nucleotide
form covalent bonds to form nucleic acids
Ribonucleic acid
nucleic acid consisting of RNA
deoxyribonucleic acid
nucleic acid consisting of DNA
Proteins
macromolecules that contain nitrogen as well as carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen
Amino acids
Proteins are polyers of molecules known as amino acids
Chemical reaction
a process of changing from one set of chemicals to another
Reactants
Elements or compounds that enter a chemical reaction
Products
elements or compounds produced by reaction
Activation energy
energy needed to get a reaction started
catalyst
substance that speeds up rate of reaction
Enzymes
proteins that act as biological catalysts
substrates
reactants of enzyme catalyzed reactions