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53 Cards in this Set

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Vagus Nerve
Cranial Nerve X
-Conveys information about the stretching of stomach walls
--Leads to satiety
Splanchnic Nerves
Conveys information about nutrient contents of stomach
Duodenum
Part of small intestine adjoining the stomach
-1st digestive site that absorbs lots of nutrients
-When distended--> Satiety
Cholecystokinin
CCK
-Limits meal size(hormone released by duodenum)
(1)Closes sphincter muscle between stomach & duodenum-stomach fills quicker
(2)Stimulates Vagus Nerve-message to hypothalamus
Glucostatic Theory
-Hungry if glucose is low - Glucoreceptors
-Insulin:enables sugar to enter cells-Stored as fat & carbs
--sugar shock-Diabetics can get hyperglycemia
--Increases before, during, and after meal
--High insulin suppress appetite

-Glucagon:Stimulates liver to convert glycogen to glucose
Lipostatic Theory
-Long term hunger regulation
-Fat monitoring system
-Body's fat cells produce leptin: the more cells, the more leptin
-High leptin=Eat less
-Certain level trigger puberty
-People who are obese are less sensitive to leptin
-Have genetic inability to produce leptin
Cognitive Theory of Hunger
Positive-Incentive Perspective
-Drawn to eat by anticipatory pleasure
-Take advantage of good food when present
Combination of Factors
-Flavor, learning, time, reserves in stomach, social influence, glucose levels
-Insulin increases before meal because we're preparing for expectation
Arcuate Nucleus
2 Inputs
(1)Hunger Signals-Taste pathway, Ghrelin released
(2)Satiety Signals-CCK release, insulin levels, leptin levels

Paraventricular Nucleus-Inhibits lateral hypothalamus

Inject Melanocortin=Satiety
Inject Neuropeptide Y= Overeating
Lateral Hypothalamus
Lesions=Decrease eating, death if not forced fed
Response
1)Taste Pathway
2)Facilitates ingestion, swallowing
3)Increases response to senses
4)Increase food seeking behavior
5)Increase insulin secretion
6)Increases activation of digestion(stomach secretions)
Ventromedial Hypothalamus
Lesions=Overeating & Obesity
-Frohlic syndrome-metabolic d/o
-Hyperinsulinemia
-Prader-Willi syndrome

Ventral Noradrenergic Bundle
-Eat normal but frequently
-Increased insulin production
-Increased stomach secretions
-Increase set point for weight
Brain Mechanisms of Hunger
1)Satiety Signals-- Satiety Sensitive Cells of Arcuate Nucleus Receive Signals-- Releases Melanocortin-- Excites PVN-- Inhibits LH-- Decreases Eating Behavior

2)Hunger Signals-- Hunger Sensitive Cells of Arcuate Nucleus Receive Signals-- Blocks Satiety Action of PVN-- No Inhibition of LH-- Increases eating behavior & releases Orexin
Obesity
-Energy intake greater than energy output
-Family/Cultural Reasons
-Strong response to sight/smell of food
Biological Basis
-Basal Metabolic Rate
--Nonexercise Activity Thermogenesis (NEAT)
--Unable to produce or less sensitive to Letpin
Genetic Influences
-Melanocortin Receptor Mutations
-Prader-Willi Syndrome
-Inable to inhibit Ghrelin Release
Anorexia-Background
-Refusal to maintain body weight
-Less than 85%
-Intense fear of weight gain
-Disturbance in body perception
-Denial of seriousness of low body ewight
-preoccupied with food
-Disgusted by sweet & fatty tastes
-Feel sick after eating
Anorexia-Theories
1)Cultural emphasis on thinness
2)Highly controlled, rigid family life
3)Genetic predisposition
4)Positive-Incentive Theory
--Low incentive to taste food
--High incentive to interact with food
5)Conditioned taste aversion
--Initially eating is associated with being fat
--Then, binge & feel pain
--Purge & develop aversion to food
Bulimia-Background
1)Recurrent binge eating
--Larger than normal portions
--Sense of lack of control
2)Recurrent inappropriate compensatory behavior (dieting)
3)Self-Evaluation unduly influenced by body shape & weight
4)Subtypes:
-Purging
-Non-Purging
Bulimia-Theories
Cognitive-Behavioral Theory
-Unhappy with body->Unstable Mood->Bulimia

Interpersonal & Sociocultural
-Societal Pressure->Unstable Mood->Bulimia

Genetic Theory
-Higher incidence rate in families-Possible genes

Pathophysiological Theory
-Decrease release of CCK, Increased Ghrelin
-Alterations of serotonin, endorphins, estrogen

Food as a Drug
-Eating activates reward pathway in brain
Role of Sex Hormones
Development & Function of Reproductive Organs--Neural differentiation based on hormones during development

Growth & Development of Many Tissues-Estrogen stimulates growth of dendritic spines in hippocampus

Sexual Behaviors & Drive
-Hormones promote reproductive behavior
-Female: enable compulation
--No Estrogen=Female Genitals but no female behaviors
-Males: Mounting behaviors
Development
6 Weeks
1)Mullerian Ducts--Female
2)Wolffian--Male

3 Months
-Testosterone
-Mullerian-Inhibiting Substance
-Mullerian ducts degenerate
Development cont.
-Sexual differentiation depends mainly on testosterone
-Sensitive Period=3rd & 4th months or pregnancy
-SRY protein differentiates gonadal tissue into testes
-If female injected with testosterone during sensitive period->Masculine Behavior
-Default setting is female
Sexual Behavior
Cognitive Differences
-Women have higher gray matter, more densely packed neurons
-Men have more white matter
Men=Gross Motor
Women=Fine Motor
Men=Spatial Navigation
Women=Recalling Landmarks
Men=Math REasoning
Women=Computation
Men=Mechanical things
Women-Detect sensory info faster-except vision
-Women have more verbal fluency & memory
Hormone Pathway
Gonadal Endocrine System
1)Gonadotropin-releasing hormone from hypothalamus
2)Hypothalamopituitary Portal System-veins carry blood from hypothalamus to anterior pituitary gland
3)Anterior Pituitary Gland- stimulates release of Gonadotropin
4)Circulatory System carries Gonadotropin to Gonads
5)Releases Estrogen, Androgens, & Progestins- Feedback loops to hypothalamus & pituitary gland regulate hormone release
--Behavior Influences Biology
-Hormone release regulated by experience
Neural Mechanisms of Sexual Behavior
Primary sex difference for Endocrine Function
-Female:Cyclical
-Males: Steady
Neural Mechanisms of Behavior
Males-Hypothalamus
1)Medial Preoptic Area
-Sexual dimorphic Nucleus
2)Lateral Tegmental Field-some neurons only fire during sex
-Medial Preoptic Findings
.Increased levels of dopamine during arousal--Very high during orgasm
-Endogenous opioids released
Neural Mechanisms of Behavior
Females
1)Ventromedial Hypothalamus
-center for female sexual behavior
-moderate Oxytocin release
2)Periaqueductal Gray-mediates influence of VMH
3)Changes in hormones from Period alter sexual behavior
--increases sexual responsiveness, initiate more sexual behavior, attend to sexually related stimuli, increased preference for masculine, assertive, competitive & athletic men
Birth Control Pills
Combo of Estrogen & Progesterone
1)Prevent follicle stimulating & luetinizing hormones
-Thicken mucus of cervix
3)Prevent uterine lining from thickening
Activating Effects
Gonads Release: Androgens, Estrogens, Progestins
2 Effects
1)Organizing Effects-mostly at sensitive state-Determines if brain & body will develop female or male characteristics
2)Activating Effects-occurs at any time of life & temporarily activates a particular response
-change sensitivity in reproductive organs-Estrogen increases, sensitivity to Pudenal Nerve
-change brains response to stimlui
Secondary Sex Characteristics
Childhood-Circulating hormone levels are low, reproductive organs are premature

Puberty-Fertility achieved, growth spurt, 2nd sex characteristics develop
-Pituitary Gland releases: growth hormone, gonadotropic hormone, Adrenocorticotropic hormone
Parental Behaviors
Hormones facilitate behaviors
-Estrogen=Maternal behaviors
-Oxytocin=Social attachment & maternal behaviors
-Prolactin-Milk production
-Medial preoptic area & Anterior hypothalamus-maternal behavior in rats
-Vasopressin establishes long term bonds
Hormonal Control of Sexual Behavior & Drive
Males
-Testosterone-promotes sexual behavior
-Oxytocin-Contraction of smooth muscles
-Prolactin-Produces inhibitory effect on sexual desire

Females
-Estrogen & Progesterone- Increased sexual behavior during ovulation
-Oxytocin-Contractions of smooth muscles - Social interaction & maternal behavior
Variations of Sexual Behavior
Male:Vasopressin establishes long-term bonds
Female:Oxytocin
-women more concerned with males earning potential
-men more concerned with mates youth
-men usually show more jealousy over sexual infidelity
-women more with emotional infidelity
-Mating habits of people can be explained in terms of increasing probability of passing on ones genes
--Cannot assume genetic basis
--Behaviors & preferences may be product of learning
Sex vs. Gender
Gender:How we identify sexually & what we call ourselves

Sex: Male or female divisions of species
Sexual Orientation
Social Theory-Domineering mothers, submissive fathers

Biological Cause-Too little testosterone in men, too much in females

Developmental Cause:
-Male homosexuals are NOT masculinized or Defeminized
-Female homosexuals ARE defeminized & masculinized
-Bisexuals Are masculinized, Not defeminized
Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia
CAH
-Adrenal glands secrete abnormal amounts of androgens
-Males born with CAH develop normally
-Females can develop external genitals
-Intersexes:
-Hermaphrodite-genitals don't match either sex
Androgen Insensitivity Syndrome
-Individual with XY but is insensitive to androgen
-Develops as woman without ovaries or uterus--Testes are internal
-Default to female-testes release enough estrogen to feminize body
Brain Structures
Homosexual
Males:
-Larger Anterior Commissure- white fibers connecting to hemispheres
-Larger Suprachiasmatic Nucleus-circadian rhythm

Homosexual:
-Smaller neurons in 3rd interstitial nucleus of the anterior hypothalamus
2 Biological Factors Affect Sexual Orientation
1)Prenatal Hormone Exposure

2)Hereditiy
Emotion Definition
A mental state that arises spontaneously, accompanied by physiological changes such as joy, reverence, hate, and love
Darwin, Mead, Ekman
Charles Darwin: Argues emotions are innate

Margaret Mead: Argues emotions are learned

Paul Ekman-"Universality Studies"
-High cross-cultural agreement for 6 emotions
(1)Happiness, (2)Sadness, (3)Fear, (4)Anger, (5)Disgust, (6)Surprise
3 Primary Responses of Emotions
1)Behavioral (dog growls)
2)Autonomic
-SNS Increases, PNS Decreases
-mobilization of glucose, Increase HR & respiration, Decrease in digestion
3)Hormonal
-Epinephrine & Norepinephrine
-Adrenal glands secretes steroid hormone
James-Lange Theory
1)Cognitive appraisal of situation
2)Appropriate physiological response (ANS response)
3)Situations elicit behavior
4)Brain receives sensory feedback from muscles & internal organs
Cannon-Bard Theory
-Internal Organs are insensitive & cannot respond quickly
-Cutting nerves that give feedback from internal organs to brain didn't alter emotional behavior
Cannon-Bard Theory
Problems - Pure-Autonomic Failure
Pure-Autonomic Failure
-report same emotions as others
-can identify some emotions in others
-report feeling emotions less intensely

-Perceptions of body contribute to emotional feelings
Functions of Emotions
Individual
1)Help make decisions
2)Emotions important component to moral decisions
3)Failure to anticipate unpleasantness of an event can lead to bad decision making
Functions of Emotions
Dyadic
1)Convey info about other people or objects
2)Evoke complementary & reciprocal emotions in others
3)Encourage or discourage behaviors in others
4)Define boundaries in group or culture
Brain Mechanisms of Emotions
Behavioral Activating System
-Increased activity in Frontal & Temporal areas of Left Hemisphere
-Outgoing & happier

Behavioral Inhibition System
-Increased activity in frontal & temporal areas of Right Hemisphere
-Socially withdrawn, Less satisfied with life

Other Structures
-Frontal Lobes-Temporal Lobes
-Limbic System-Areas surrounding thalamus
Central Nucleus
-Projects to regions of hypothalamus, midbrain, pons, medulla
-Responsive for Behavioral, Autonomic, Hormonal Responses
-Responsible for expression of emotional responses
-Most important part of the brain for expression of emotional responses
Lateral Nucleus
-Receives sensory info from neocortex, prefrontal cortex, thalamus, hippocampus
-Sends to Striatum & Thalamus
Medial Nucleus
-Receives sensory input
-Sends info to hypothalamus
Aggression & Impulse Control
-Heredity, prenatal env., learned behavior
-Neural Mechanisms: Medial Hypothalamus & Amygdala
-Defensive behaviors & Predation:Periaqueductal Gray Matter
2 Primary Areas in Emotional Regulation
1)Orbitofrontal Cortex
2)Ventromedial Prefrontal Cortex
Inputs=Thalamus & Amygdala
Output=Hippocampus, Cingulate Cortex, Lateral hypothalamus, Amygdala
Role of Serotonin
-Inhibits aggressive behaviors
-inhibits risky behaviors
-Tryptophan(turkey) synthesizes into serotonin
Hormonal Control
-Prenatal exposure to adrogen increases aggressive behavior
-Aggressive behavior increases before puberty
Disgust
-Provoked by bad taste or smell, or that we consider bad taste

Neural Mechanisms
-Insular Cortex-primary taste region
-Basal Ganglia-connects to Basal nucleus
Happiness
Heredity
-50% momentary happiness
-80% of set point for happiness determined by genetics

Neural Mechanisms
-Amygdala
-Prefrontal Cortex-
--Right ventromedial cortex involved in appreciation of humor