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42 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
phylum chordata
lancelets, tunicates and vertebrates
characteristics of phylum chordata
fibrous notochord, pharyngeal gill slits, dorsal hollow nerve cord, and postanal tail present at some stage in their development
3 subphylums of phylum chordata
1) two invertebrate subphyla, the Subphylum Urochordata and Subphylum Cephalochordata
2) segemented vertebrae, Subphylum Vertebrata
what is the name of the 2 vertebrate subphyla together
Acraniata, b/c they lack crania or brain cases
what are all members of the Vertebrata referred to as?
Craniata, b/c they possess protective braincases or crania
Subphyla Urochodata are
characteristics of Subphyla Urochordata
Marine, larvae are freeswimming and have notochord, gill slits, and dorsal hollow nerve cord; most adults are sessile (attached), filter feeders, saclike animals
4 chordata characteristic features
1) a stiff, yet flexible, supportive NOTOCHORD that runs down the dorsal portion of the body
2) a dorsal, hollow nerve tube that runs dorsal to the notochord
3) pharyngeal gill slits used in filter feeding in lower chordates and respiration in higher chordates
4) a muscular postanal tail used in locomation
what is the name of the segmented muscle found in most chordates?
somites or myomeres
what opening serve to bring water through the body while filter feeding
incurrent and excurrent siphons
in chordates, the mantle contains what?
both longitudinal and circular muscles that contract when the tunicate is touched, which causes water to be ejected out of the body, called sea squirts
the pharyngeal basket lies w/in a cavity called?
atrium, which is separated from a visceral cavity by a septum
the visceral cavity contains the animals?
digestive organs, the stomach and intestine as well as the gonads, not all are visible in the preserved tunicate
the gill bars are covered with?
cilia, which create currents that draw water into the incurrent siphon, through the pharyngeal gill slits into the atrium and out the excurrent siphon
along one side of the pharnyx is an organ called?
endostyle, which secretes sheets of mucus that are swept across the gill bars by their cilia, as water moves through the gill bars food particles are trapped in the mucus sheet
food travels by way of?
it is trapped by the mucus sheet, swept away by the cilia, into the esophagus, stomach, intestine, rectum, septum, atrium, out the anus
SubPhyla Urochordata, tunicates, heart has an open circulatory system which means?
it pumps in one direction passing along nutrients and then switches circulation to the other direction alternating the direction of nutrients
subphylum urochordata reproduce?
they are MONOECIOUS, their gonads are located w/in the visceral cavity, both male and female gonaducts pass through the septum and release gametes into the atrium close the excurrent siphon. Fertilization is usually external, the resulting zygotes develop into free-swimming tadpole larvae
tunicate larvae are refered to as?
tadpole larvae
Subphylum Cephalochordata
lancelets (Amphioxus)
characteristics of SP. Cephalochordata
marine, segmented, elongated body w/notochord extending the length of the body; cilia surrounding the mouth for obtaining food
Subphyla Vertebrata
aganthans (lampreys and hagfishes), fishes (cartilaginous and bony), amphibians, reptiles, birds, mammals
characteristics of SP: Vertebrata
Aquatic and terrestrial forms; distinct head and trunk supported in most by a series of cartilaginous or bony vertebrae in the adult; closed circulatory system and ventral heart; well-developed brain and sensory organs
SP: Cephalochordata eat?
they are filter feeders, they plant their tail first in sand or gravel and then filter feed
SP: Cephalochordata, the lancelets reproduce...?
they are DIOECIOUS, each sex possesses a pair of large gonads that lie w/in the atriuma=on either side of the pharynx
the pharyngeal basket in the lancelets, SB: Cephalochrodata is used primarily for 2 things...?
a filter feeding device, and is used additionally for gas exchange
lampreys, SB: Vertebrata repoduce...?
they are sexually reproductive individuals, adults swim up freshwater streams, they build rock nests, spawn, and then die. The eggs hatch young larval lamprey called AMMOCOETES LARVAE
Lampreys feed by...?
they are filter feeders, similar to the marine lancelets, tail burried first and then they filter feed
Phylum Echinodermata are...?
sea stars and sea urchins
characteristics of Phylum Echinodermata
Larvae have bilateral symmetry; adults have pentaradial symmetry; coelom, most contain complex digestive tract; regeneration of body parts
list the 5 classes of the Phylum Echinodermat?
1) C. Asteroidea
2) C. Echinoidea
3) C. Ophiuroidea
4) C. Holothuroidea
5) C. Crinoidea
C. Asteroidea are...?
Their charasteristics are...?
Sea stars (star fish)
Pentaradial symmetry; appendages arranged around a central disk containing the mouth; tube feet w/suckers
C. Echiniodea are...?
Their characteristics are...?
Sea urchins and sand dollars
Pentaradial symmetry; disk shaped w/no arms; compact skeleton; movable spines; tube feet w/suckers
C. Ophiuroidea are...?
Their characterstics are...?
Brittle stars
Pentaradial symmetry; appendages sharply marked off from central disk; tube feet w/out suckers
C. Holothuroidea are...?
Their characteristics are...?
Sea cucumers
Pentaradial symmetry; cucumer shaped w/no arms; spines absent; tube feet w/tentacles and suckers
C. Crinoidea are...?
Their characterstics are...?
Sea lillies and feather stars
Pentaradial symmetry; sessile during much of life sysle; calyx supported by elongated stalk in some
name the 2 classes and 1 superclass representatives of Subphylum Vertebrata, Phylum Chordata
Class Myxini
Class Cephalaspidomorphi
Superclass Agnatha
Class Myxini are...?
Class Myxini characteristics are...?
Eel-like and aquatic; sucking mouth (some parasitic); lack jaws and paired appendages
Class Cephalaspidomorphi are...?
Class Cephalaspidomorphi characteristics are...?
Suctorial mouth w/rasping teeth; nasal sac not connected to buccal cavity; 7 pairs of pharyngeal pouches
Class Myxini characteristics are...?
Terminal mouth w/buccal funnel absent; nasal sac connected to pharynx; 4 pairs of tentacles; 5 to 10 pairs pharyngeal pouches