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74 Cards in this Set

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What organ produces bile?
the liver
(T/F) Bile contains enzymes
False; bile emulsifies fats, breaking down large globules into small droplets.
What is the function of the small intestine?
it's where chemical digestion is completed and nutrients are absorbed.
Function of the large intestine?
absorption of salts and water.
Function of gall bladder?
stores the bile prior to its release in the small intestine.
Function of the pancreas?
produces digestive enzymes (eg. amylase, trypsin, and lipase) and hormones (e.g. insulin and glucagon)
Where are red blood cells produced in the fetus?
the liver
In adult cells, where are red blood cells produced?
bone marrow.
What does the spleen store?
it stores a volume of blood and filters it but doesn't produce it.
What does the liver do pertaining to blood?
it removes foreign material and detoxifies chemical in the blood.
What does the heart do pertaining to blood?
it provides the pressure that enables the blood to travel throughout the body.
(T/F) Sympathetic nervous system causes bronchial dilation.
True; it increases respiration.
(T/F) Sympathetic NS increases blood to the skeletal muscles and away from the digestive organs.
True.
What is epinephrine known as and what organ releases it?
adrenaline;
its released by the adrenal medulla.
Epinephrine is a peptide hormone is steroid?
Peptide hormone;
Where are steroid hormones produced?
adrenal cortex
(T/F) The SA node is functionally dependent upon nervous stimulation as this tissue initiates the heartbeat
false; it is not functionally dependent upon the nervous system! Though it can be modified by the nervous system.
What is a reflex arc?
- a stimulis coupled to a rapid motor trdpondr; its meant for quickness or protection.
- process requires no input from the brain.
- a minimum of 3 neurons must participate.
What do the filaments in skeletal muscles require to slide along each other and shorten during contraction?
ATP.
(T/F) Each muscle cell/fiber is innervated by a branch of the nerve innervating this muscle.
True;
- the axon releases an AP to each muscle fiber.
- this AP can't pass from one muscle fiber t another.
- When this AP reaches the muscle fiber, it causes the release of Ca2+ from the SR to initiate teh sliding of the actin and myosin filaments.
When an AP reaches the muscle fiber (from axon), it causes what?
the release of Ca2+ from the SR to initiate the sliding of the actin and myosin filaments.
(T/F) The liber sores bile.
False; the liber is responsible for the SYNTHESIS of bile.
- The GALL BLADDER stores the bile until it's needed.
(T/F) The liver synthesizes angiotensinogen.
True.
What does bile do?
It emulsifies fat.
The liver removes bacteria and bilirium from the blood stream?
True;
- bilirubin is utilized in the formation of bile salts.
(T/F) The liver stores sugar as glycogen.
True; the liver is a biochemical factory that stores sugar as glycogen in response to insulin levels;
What signals the liver to break down glycogen to glucose?
glucagon and epinephrine
(T/F) The liver converts excess amino acids to glucose, fats, and ammonia; and converts ammonia to urea for excretion.
True.
What does the pancreas secrete?
it secretes proteases:
- lipases, and amylase, which aid in the digestion of food;
- and bicarbonate ions which buffer the pH of the chyme coming from the stomach.
Acetylcholine
- neurotransmitter found in neuromuscular junctions and synpases.
- Other NTs found in these locations include: norepinephrine, dopamine, and serotonin.
(T/F) Acetylcholine inhibits AP transmission.
False; it causes an AP.
What is the purpose of bile?
it emulsifies fats to increase the surface area of the fat molecules so that lipases can break them down.
What is the cartilaginous structure that prevents food from going dwon the trachea?
the epiglottis;
it closes off the respiratory tract and covers the glottis which is the opening at the top of the trachea.
What is the voice box known as and where is it located?
it's known as the larynx and its located below the glottis.
What is the esophageal splinter known as?
the cardiac sphingcter;
it separates the esophagus from the stomach.
(T/F) A nucleoside doesn't contain the phosphate group, just the nitrogenous base and sugar.
True.
What make up nucleotides?
- a nitrogenous base: guanine, uracil, adenine, cytosine, or thymine
- a sugar: either ribose or deoxyribose
- phosphate group
(T/F) Carbohydrates are only sugars.
true.
(T/F) Fats are glycerols and three fatty acids.
True.
(T/F) Priteins are only linked amino acids and don't contain anything found in a nucleotide.
TRUE.
What is the most efficient catabolic pathway used by organisms to harvest the energy stored in glucose.
Cellular respiration;
whereas glycolysis yields only two ATP per molecule of glucose, cellular respiration can yield 36-38 ATP.
(T/F) Anaerobic respiration is less efficient than aerobic respiration b/c glucose molecules are incompletely oxidized.
True;
cellular respiration is an aerobic process; oxygen acts as the final acceptor of electrons that are passed from carrier to carrier during the final stage of glucose oxidation.
Myosin fibers are (thick/thin) fibers; and actin fibers are (thick/thin) fibers.
thick; thin
(T/F) During muscle contraction, myosin and actin fibers shrink in size.
False; neither one of the fibers shrinks in size.
- The muscle cell itself will shrink in size b/c the fibers slide past each other; thereby causing a decrease in the size of the muscle cell, and therefore a contraction of the muscle.
(T/F) The liver forms urea from the metabolism of excess amino acids.
True;
the amino groups, which are removed from the amino acids, are combined with CO2 through a series of reactions to form the moderately toxic waste product urea.
Where does the pancreatic ducts from the pancreas lead to?
- the duodenum;
- they carry pancreatic enzymes, including pancreatic amylase, lipase, and some proteases, such as trypsin and chymotrypsin, from the pancreas to the duodenum.
- pancreatic duct also delivers bicarbonate, which is contained in the pancreatic secretions, whcih helps to neutralize acidic stomach contents as they enter the duodenum.
(T/F) Hormones produced by hte pancreas pass through the pancreatic ducts.
FALSE! Hormones are secreted directly into the blood stream.
Why is the pancreas a dual organ?
It produces both enzymes and hormones. Therfore a tying off of the pancreatic ducts will not affect the product of pancreatic hormones insulin and glucagon (b/c these are secreted directly into the bloodstream).
what is acromegaly the result of?
- excessive secretion of growth hormone in an adult.
- it causes excessive bone growth of some facial bones, and the result is characteristic distorted facial appearance.
What organ is the parathyroid hormone secreted from; and what is its function?
- it's secreted by the parathyroid gland;
- its function is to increase blood calcium through removal of calcium from bones and other calcium-containing tissues.
- the removal of calcium from bones is primarily done by osteoclasts, which are bone-absorbing cells.
What is the "antagonist" hormone to paratyroid hormone; and what does it do?
calcitonin;
it's secreted by the thyroid gland it reduces blood calcium by depositing it into bone and other calcium containing tissue.
glucagon is from where and what does it do?
- the alpah cells of the islets of Langerhans of the pancreas;
- it raises blood glucose.
Where is aldosterone secreted and what does it do?
adrenal cortex;
it increases sodium reabsorption in the kidneys
ADH and vasopressin's function?
to increase reabsorption in the collecting tubules of the kidneys.
hypothalamus is involved in the regulation of what?
- temperature regulation
- sleep/wake cycles
- water and salt balance
- hunger
- it also produces factors that control the secretions of the anterior pituitary.
What is the medulla involved in?
such basic function as regulation of heart rate and breathing.
Pons
- contains tracts that connect the cerebrum to other parts of the brain
- also works in conjunction with the medulla in controlling breathing rate.
cerebrum is in charge of what functions?
memory, conscious through, voluntary motor activity, and the interpretation of sensation
pinear glands secret what?
hormone melatonin, which is involved in the control of circadian rhythms and which also may be involved in sexual maturation.
What is pepsin?
its a proteolytic enzyme that works in the acidic environment of the stomach.
(T/F) Calcitonin lowers blood calcium by storing it in bone and other tissue.
True.
ATP synthesis occurs where in the cell?
in the matrix (Krebs cycle), inner mitochondrial membrane (ETC), and in the cytoplasm (glycolysis).
Where does fatty acid degradation occur?
in microbodies called peroxisomes which break down fat into smaller molecules to use as fuel.
Where specifically does the Krebs cycle occur?
The mitochondrial matrix.
How does the Krebs cycle begin?
- when acetyl CoA combines with OAA to form citrate.
- then a cmoplicated series of reactions follows which results in the release of 2CO2 and the regeneration of OAA.
How does blastulation begin?
when the morula develops a fluid-filled cavity called the blastocoel, whcih by the fourth day of human development will become a hollow sphere of cells called the blastula.
What is the morula?
Solid ball of cells that results from the early stages of cleavage in an embryo.
Gastrula
the embryonic stage characterized by the presence of endoderm, ectoderm, the blastocoel and the archenteron.
- the early gastrula is two-layered;
- later a 4rd layer, the mesoderm develops.
Which of the following is NOT a metabolic waste product?
a. CO2
b. lactate
c. H2O
d. pyruvate
E. ammonia
Pyruvate is an intermediate of cellular respiration, and is either anareobically converted into the waste product lactate or further metabolized into wastes CO2 and H2O. PYRUVATE IS NOT A WASTE PRODUCT.
Is ammonia a metabolic waste product and why?
Yes it is. Ammonia is the waste product of protein metabolism.
- It's converted to the less toxic urea in the liver, and removed by the kidneys.
- If ammonia is not converted and cleared, it can cause the blood to become alkaline, which is potentially fatal.
(T/F) Mitochondria are different from other organelles in that they are semiautonomous; that is they contain their own circular DNA and ribosomes, which enables them to produce some of their own proteins and to self-replicate binary fission.
True.
Hyperthyrodisim results in an excess of throxin and other thyroid hormones. What are characteristics of hyperthyrodism?
These hormones increase basal metabolic rate and blood pressure. Patients with hyperthyrodism are often characterized by sensitivity to heat and nervousness.
What are energy storage molecules located in muscle fibers?
ATP and phosphocreatine.
(T/F) Lactose is a disaccharide known as milk sugar made up of glucose and galactose.
True.