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60 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
What two substances relating to life were found in the Mars meteorite.
carbon containing molecules(polycyclic aromatic hreocarbons) and crystals of magnetite.
Conditions of primitive Earth led to the emergence of large molecules unique to life.
chemical evolution
In the Urey-Miller experiment, what kinds of large molecules were created when primative atmospheric conditions were simulated?
amino acids, purines, and pyrimidines
How has the view of the prehistoric atmosphere changed since the Miller-
Urey experiment?
C02, N2, H2S and SO2 were in the atmosphere as well.
Which conditions provide the best environment to bind monomers?
solid mineral surfaces
What are the four kinds of macromolecules?
proteins,lipids, carbohydrates, nulceic acid
Giant polymers.
macromolecules
The ractions that form polymers from monomers (two names)
condensation reactions or dehydration reactions.
A reaction that breaks polymers into monemers.
hydrolysis reaction
What are some functions of proteins?
structural support, protection, catalysis, defense, regulation, and movement.
What two macromolecule functions are not performed by proteins.
energy storage and information storage
A monomer part of a polymer.
residue
What atom are amino acids centered on?
carbon
what are the three groups of side chains?
electrically charged hydrophilic, polar uncharged hydrophilic, and nonpolar hydrophobic
What are the three special cases of amino acids?
cysteine, glycine, and proline
The covalent bond formed between two cyseine side chains.
disulfide bridge
The carboxyl group of one amino acid reacts with the amino goup of another undergoing a condensation reaction that forms a peptide linkage.
peptide linkage
What are the four major macromolecules?
Proteins, carbs, lipids, nucleic acids.
What units can polymers be divided into?
monomers
What links link monomers together to form polymers?
covalent bonds
What reaction are macromolecules made from?
condensation or dehydration reaction.
What is the reverse reaction of a dehydration reaction?
hydrolysis
What two things does hydrolysis need to occur?
Energy and enzymes.
What two carbs serve as structural components?
celulose and chitin
What are the four categories of carbs?
monosaccharides, di-, oligo-, poly-
What are two types of polysaccharides?
starch and gylcogen
Carotinoids, which capture light enrgy, are which type of macromolecule?
lipids
Hormones and vitamins are which type of macromolecule?
lipids
What kind of macromolecule repels water?
lipids
What kind of liquid fatty acid has kinks which make it difficult to pack?
unsaturated fatty acids
In a phospholipid, which part is polar and which part is nonpolar?
HEads are polar, they interact with water, tails are nonpolar, they don't interact with water. These make good water repellants when the tails are to the inside of a membrane.
Organic compunds with a series of fused ring.
steroids
This synthesizes testosterone and estrogen.
cholesterol
Nucleic acid that stores info
DNA
Nucleic acid that transports info
RNA
What are the three parts of a nucleotide?
pentose sugar, a phosphate group, and a nitrogen containing base
what are the base letters for dna?
gatc
What are the base letters for RNA?
GAUC
Which kind of nucleic acid is double stranded and which is single stranded
rna single, dna double
Which dna base pairs are connected by double bonds and which are connected by triple bonds>
AT double, CG triple
What happens when hydrogen bonding occurs in RNA
complicated 3d shape
What is the central dogma?
genes>dna>ran>protein
RNA molecules that can axt as catalysts
ribozymes
What type of macromolecule is ATP?
nucleic acid (A is a base)
What is the role of ATP?
energy transducer
What are the five parts of an amino acid?
central carbon, a hydrogen, an amino group, a carboxly group, and an r group/side chain
What part of an amino acid determines the type of amino acid?
it's rgroup
What are the bonds that form between amino acids called?
peptide bonds
What is formed when amino acids link?
water
what two groups connect when amino acids link?
carboxyl and amino
What are the four levels of proteins?
primary, secondary, tertiary, and quaternary
these links form between cysteine residues
disulfide bridges
what is the one macromolecule that doesn't contain nitrogen?
lipids
What does a primary chain consist of?
repeating amino acids
What are the two possible secondary structures?
alpha helix and beta pleats
What defines are quatenary structure?
subunits, tertiary structures that react with eachother
What determines the reactions within tertiary groups?
rgroup interactions
Term that refers to a monomer when it's part of a polymer
residue
The loss of a protein’s normal three-dimensional structure. Also loses the normal biological function of the protein. Often irreversible.
Denaturation
Prevent inappropriate protein interactions.
Chaperonins