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60 Cards in this Set

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Dipimia
Lots of trigycerides in blood
Arrector pili muscles
Goosebumps; when they contract, they pull hair in the verticle position
Ex. of an electrolyte
Salt
Nails are derivatives of the...
Epidermis
Functions of nails
Protection, remnant of exoskeleton, to manipulate objects, scratching
Sebaceous glands
Anti microbial agent in sebum that is produced by sebaceous glands; associated with hair, some hairless areas of the body that contain oil glands are : lips, glens penis, labia minera, tursal glands, etc.
Tursal glands
Under the eyelids;specific type of sebaceous gland, also called Meibomian glands.
Sudoriferous glands
(Sweat glands)
1) Eccrine gland
2) Appocrine gland
Eccrine gland
Sudoriferous; watery secretion
Appocrine
Sudoriferous; whitish secretion, organic substances (lipids and proteins)
Sweat function
Thermal regulation
Sebaceous glands
Kind of holicrine glands (secretion > dead cells); whole cell disinegrates
Sudoriferous glands
Appocrine glands, found in axillary regions, snal, general, earlope, glands that are apt to produce body odor.
Energy
Capacity to do work;displacement of matter
Myogenic heat
Muscular activity
Two ways to lose heat
1) Increase blood flow through the skin
2) Increase amount of sweat production
(both nerve pathways)
Difference between temperature and heat
Temp indicates amount of heat energy present, heat is a type of energy
Hyperhydrosis
excessive sweating
Nervous system (2)
1) Muscular activity
2) Glandular activity
Hair color
Melanin
Black - true melanin
Blond - Melanin c sulfur
Red - Melanin c iron
White/Grey - lower amt. melanin
Cold receptors (2)
1) Mechanical energy
2) Arterials - vaso constrict
Tyrosinase
Enzyme-amino acid - slows down due to age, lower amt. melanin
Four factors that influence skin color
1) Pigments-melanin
2) Carotene-yellowish
3) Bili rubin-yellowish
4) Hemoglobin-blue/red/pink
Excess of bili rubin
Yellow pigment found in blood - jaundice
Bili verde
Green - breakdown product of hemoglobin
Jaundice (other than medical)
Some people take on this color from eating too much lettuce/carrots
Albinism
No melanin, inherited inability to produce melanin (white skin, hair, pink eyes) no tyrosinase activity, recessive trait
Vitiligo
Partial or complete loss of melanocytes from a particular area of skin - these areas of the skin are a whitish or spotted white color.
Freckles
Patches of melanin
Macule
Black/blue mark with no elevation/depression on skin, colour comes from bruises, three pigments - bili rubin, 'verden, and reduced hemoglobin
Papule
red elevated area on the skin (ex: mosquito sting)
Vesicle
Fluid filled elevation of the skin (ex: blister)
Postule
Vesicles that contain pus (pimples)
Bulla
Large vesicles or blisters
Cruste
Dry pus and fluid on the skin
Lichenification
Hardening and thickening of the skin
Scar
Fibrous tissue located in a previous lesion
Fibrous tissue
Contains a lot of fibron<- insoluble protein found in blood after coagulation
Keloid
Large elevated scar = histology > fibrous tissue
Bacterial infections
Cause apt to be caccal bacterial
1) Caccal
2) Staphyloccus
3) Streptococcus
Viral infections
Caused by viruses
1) Warts - begign tumor
2) Herpes - Cold sores
Both caused by viruses
Fungal infections
Athletes foot, apt to be cracking in the skin
Acne (cause)
inflammation of the sebaceous glands
Blackheads
Enlarged sebaceous glands loaded with sebum, black colour results from melanin and oxidized acids
Eczema
Common skin disorder, cause unknown, food allergy? Symptoms: redness, eruptions, watery discharge, crust, scabs
Seborrhea
Excessive production of sebum, which may form crusts and scabs on the skin
Impetigo
Highly contageous bacterial disease-staph infection-raw skin, spreads
Psoriasis
Silvery scales on body
Burns
Two ways to characterize -
1) How much of the body
2) Depth of the burns
Rule of nines
Hand/neck - 9%
Two arms - 18%
Two legs - 36%
Chest/Upper back - 18%
Ab/lower back - 18%
Groin - 1%
Depth of burns
1st degree: Skin is reddish, no blisters
2nd degree: Blistering
3rd degree: Charring present -all layers of the skin damaged
Homeotherms
An organism, having a body temperature that is constant and largely independent of the temperature of its surroundings; an endotherm.
Hypothalamus
The part of the brain that lies below the thalamus, forming the major portion of the ventral region of the diencephalon and functioning to regulate bodily temperature, certain metabolic processes, and other autonomic activities.
Tendons
A band of tough, inelastic fibrous tissue that connects a muscle with its bony attachment.
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