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89 Cards in this Set

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asexual reproduction
a single individual produces offpsring genetically identical to itself.
simple organisms
3 types of asexual reproduction:
and examples of each type
budding- a new individual will form off parent as a bud or branch. branch separates and grows. ex: hydra

cell fission- type of mitosis. ex: protists and bacterium.

specialized propogules-form from budding live in colonies, do not break off.
ex: sponges and jelly fish
specialized propogules
jelly fish, sponges
form of budding, but do not break off. live in colonies
cell fission
form of mitosis.
bacterium., protists
individual forms from off parent, as a bud or branch.
ex hydra.
sexual reproduction
meiosis must occur to produce haploid (n) gamete and sperm.
fusion of gametes to produce new individual
advantages of sexual reproduction
provides genetic diversity.

allows organisms to be resistant.
disadvantages of sexual reproduction
1. costly
2. more complicated: more time, energy, seasonal, complicated courtship.
3. high risk: whether reproduction even occurs.
4. organism looses 1/2 of genetic information.
advantages of asexual reproduction
more energy efficient.
organism which can alternate between sexual and asexual reproduction
Gender allocation
proportional distribution of reproductive energy btw. male and female.
3 subsections of gender allocation
distinct male and female parents. ex: mammals
plant species with separate male and female reproductive structures in a single individual.
Individual organism functions as both male and female.
2 types of hermaphroditic gender allocation
similtaneous- functions as both male and female at the same time: ex earth worm who can find a mate easily.
sequential- undergo gender change
3 types of sequential hermaphroditic gender allocation:
1. protogyny- born female first ex blue head wrasse.
2. protandry- born male first, clown fish.
3. parthenogenesis- egg develops directly into organism without being fertilized. ex: honeybee.
Biological Life cycle
passage from one adult through reproductive stages to the adult of the next generation.
adult to adult.
Biological life cycle requirements:
1. occurs in only sexually reproducing species.
2. include haploid (n) and diploid (2n) stages
3. meiosis- produces gametes.
Requirements of Biological life cycle
Snygamy- fusion of gametes to form the 2n zygote

Meiosis- produces gametes (n)
3 types of life cycles
1. dimorphic
2. haplobiontic
3. alternation of generations
typical of vertebrates, mammals

-Meiosis occurs in diploid 2n cells in the primary sex organs of the reproductive adult.
- organism spends most of its life in diploid form.
Typical of : protists (algea, fungi).
- zygote spends most of its time in haploid form
Alternation of Generations
unique to plants: gymnosperms, mosses, ferns, etc.

- Organism alternates between diploid and haploid form.
What is meant by generations?
Dipolid and Haploid form.
Diploid form Sphrophyte (2n)
Haploid form Gametophyte (n)
divide of meiosis to form:
2n diploids-

spores n - each spore grows into a haploid gamete.
Cells in haploid form (gametophyes)- become gametes, egg and sperm.
Spores and Gametes
Zygote and Sphorophyes
Meiosis makes


doubles genetic material
Meiosis I

Meiosis II
Separates homologous chromosomes

Separates Sister chromatids.
Genetic variation
1. crossing over
2. Random fertilization
3. mutations
4. independent assortment.
After Meiosis I

After Meiosis II
2 haploid cells

4 Non identical Haploid cells.
testies and ovaries
Glad in brain controls anterior pituitory
In plant:

Male reproductive structure

Female reproductive structure
Anther, Filament, Stament

Stigma, Style, Ovary, Carpel.
Microsporocites (2n)
microspore (n)
male gametophte (each microspore) (n)
Tube cell (n)
Generative cell(n)
2 sperms (n) each.
Female- flower
megasporocyte (2n)
4 megaspores
3/4 die
1 mitosis 3 times to make 8 haploid cells (n)
5/8 die
1 egg cell which is fertilized
2 = polar nuclei (3n) endosperm
provide for egg.
difference between microspore and megaspore
microspore- male each mitosis to form gametophyte which each make generative and tube cell and then sperm

Megaspore 3/4 die and 1 mitosis 3 times to make 8 haploid cells 5/8 which die
2 make polar nuclei and 1 makes egg cell.
2 polar nuclei called
endosperm (3n)
hormones land on testes,
testes filled with tubials where sperm produced.
In animal cell: when Prophase I begins:

After Meiosis II
primary spermatocytes

Secondary Spermatocytes.
(2n) all males have prior to puberty
Storage mechanism for sperm. Eats hole in egg so sperm can get in.
Corpus Luteum
Developes from burst folicile cell.
Speicialized structure releases estrogen and progesteron.
Secondary oocyte stop at meiosis II if
no sperm- by ovulation
never complete meisis II.
ovarian cell that surrounds and nurtures developing oocyte.
Female Zygote
oogonium (2n)
Primary Oocyte (2n)
first polar body and secondary oocyte (n)
Secondary oocyte- secondary polar body if no sperm
ovum if sperm
Male Sperm
Spermatogonium (2n)
Primary Spermocyte (2n)
Secondary Spermocyte 2 of them (n)
meiosis II
4 early spermatids (2 for each secondary spermatocyte)
4 sperm cells.
Triggers ovulation and egg release. increase causes ovulation

FSH and LH trigger what?
secondary hormone for triggering ovulation

folicle to grow.
Estrogen and Progesteron
prevent uterin lining for descinigration
prevents release of gnrh
prepares mammory glands for milk production
increase during pregnancy, increases body temp and metabolism.
Hormone measured in pregnancy test- works to surpress immune system so mom wont reject embryo and tissue.

each cell is morula called
doesnt change in size, only number of cells in it
solid sphere of cells
Morula changes when
64 cells are in it. then called blastula
128 cells in it. with this division overall cell size grown.
Center of Blastula
Each layer of Gastrula

3 layers
is for specific tissues and organs.
ectoderm, mesoderm, endodermal
outer layer. Eventually outercovering for animal, skin, sensory organs
Special group develop into nervous tissue, brain, spinal chord.
Middle layer. Organ system- reproductive organs, heart, kidney, bones
inner layer. LUNGS, gi tract, stomach intestines, liver, pancreas.
4 extra embryonic layers
amnion, chorion
waste sac/allantois
Yolk Sac
fluid filled sac surrounds embryo.
keeps embryo from drying out.
act as shock absorber
helps to maintain balance
pull cells off embryo
tough fiberous connective tissue which surrounds amnion, no fluid filled.
protect from punctures
Waste Sac/ Alantois
Waste taken away via moms blood vessels.
Yolk Sac
Embryos food source.
morula in plant cell.
solid ball. heart shaped.
Three integral process for embryonic Development in mammals and angiosperms.
1. morphogenesis
2. Cellular Differentiation
3. organogeneisis
Establishment of shape and pattern occurring during gasturlation
Cellular Differentiation
Cell becomes specialized. genes turned on and off. cells identified as tissues
formation of organs
Direct Development
When an animal is born looks like a mini version of adult.
mammals fish reptiles
Indirect Development
Direct development has 2 incubation periods:
Altricial, Precocial
Short incubation periods, incompletley developed at birth: robins
Longer incubation period. chicks. less developed animal coming out of shell.
S shaped growth curve
mammalian growth. no starting and stopping. prgressively increase in size.
Indirect Development has two types
Incomplete metamorphasis
Complete Metamorphasis.
Incomplete Metamorphasis
grasshopper. Head same size, but body change in proportion.
Complete metamorphasis
moths, butterflys, larval stage,
starfish, larval stage
embryonic tissue where mitosis can continue for plants
Lateral Meristem

Apical Meristem

Root Meristem
Increase width

plant to grow taller

Allows root to grow.

Apical Meristem. come every year

Aplical and latteral meristem.
Secondary growth
product of lateral meristem. known as vascular cambium