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60 Cards in this Set

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Define: root hairs
tubular outgrowths of epidermal cells of the root; greatly increase the absorbing surface of the root
Define: endodermis
a single layer of cells forming a sheath around the vascular region in roots and some stems; the endodermal cells area characterized by a Casparian strip w/in radial and transvers walls. In roots and stems of seed plants, the endodermis is the innermost layer of the cortex
Define: casparian strips
a bandlike region of primary wall containing suberin and lignin; found in anticlinical - radial and transverse - walls of endodermal and exodermal cells
Define: pericycle
a tissue characteristic of roots that is bounded externally by the endodermis and internally by the phloem
Define: simple leaf
an undivided leaf; as opposed to a compound leaf
Define: midrib
the central. usually the most prominent, vein of a leaf or leaf-like organ
Define: veins
a vascular bundle forming a part of the framework of the conducting and supporting tissue of a leaf or other expanded organ
Define: compound leaf
a leaf whose blade is divided into several distinct leaflets
Define: pinnate net venation
one large central vein (midrib) present w/smaller lateral veins that diverge in pairs or pair-like manner, each on the opposite side of the midrib
Define: palmate net venation
several main veins of equal size diverge from the petiole where it joins the lamina
Define: root hairs
tubular outgrowths of epidermal cells of the root; greatly increase the absorbing surface of the root
Define: endodermis
a single layer of cells forming a sheath around the vascular region in roots and some stems; the endodermal cells area characterized by a Casparian strip w/in radial and transvers walls. In roots and stems of seed plants, the endodermis is the innermost layer of the cortex
Define: casparian strips
a bandlike region of primary wall containing suberin and lignin; found in anticlinical - radial and transverse - walls of endodermal and exodermal cells
Define: pericycle
a tissue characteristic of roots that is bounded externally by the endodermis and internally by the phloem
Define: simple leaf
an undivided leaf; as opposed to a compound leaf
Define: pinnately compound
has elongated central rachis (midrib) to which leaflets are attached opposite one another along its length - a terminal leaflet is often present at the tip of the rachis
Define: rachis
main axis of a spike; the axis of a fern leaf (frond), from which the pinnae arise; compound leaves, the extension of the petiole corresponding to the midrib of an entire leaf, this is commonly seen as the structure to which leaflets are attached
Define: palmately compound
rachis is not elongated and the leaflet are closely attached to it at one locus
Define: venation
pattern of veins in the leaf
Define: net venation
shape in which the veins are structured
Define: parallel venation
major and minor veins run parallel to one another- these area interconnected by Commisural Bundles which diverge at angles approaching 90 degrees. This is the most common pattern used to describe venation in MONOCOTS
Define: lamina or blade
flat part of the leaf
Define: petiole
stem like structure which attaches the lamina and the stem
Define: axil
upper angle where the petiole meets the stem
Define: simple leaf
has only ONE lamina/blade
Define: compound leaf
has several lamin/blade attached to one petiole

each unit is called a leaflet
Define: phyllotaxy
the arrangement of leaves on a stem
Define: alternate
leaf arrangement in which there is one bud or one leaf at a node, so the leaves alternate along the stem
Define: opposite
leaves occuring in pairs at a node, leaves are opposite one another along the stem
Define: whorled
arrangement of three or more leaves or floral parts in a circle at a node
Define: sessile
attached directly by the base; referring to a leaf lacking a petiole of to a flower or fruit lacking a pedicel
Define: stipule
an appendage, often leaflike, tha occurs on either side of the basal part of a leaf, or encircles the stem, in many kinds of flowering plants
Define: pubescence
a covering of soft short hairs
Define: prickles
a hard, pointed outgrowth from the surface of a plant, involving several layers of cells but no containing a vein
Define: spines
a hard, sharp pointed structure; usually a modified leaf, or part of a leaf
Define: thorns
a hard, woody, pointed branch
Define: tendrils
a modified leaf or part of a leaf or stem modified into a slender coiling structure that aids in support of the stems; tendrils occur only in some angiosperms
Define: leaf abscission
the dropping of leaves, flowers, fruits, or other plant parts, usually following the formation of an abscission zone
Define: leaf scar
a scar left on a twig when a leaf falls
Define: vascular bundle scar
look up . . .
Define: terminal bud
is the primary growing point at the apex of the stem (top)
Define: leaf trace
that part of a vascular bundle extending from the base of the leaf to its connection w/a vascular bundle in the stem
Define: leaf anatomy
the leaf is the primary photosynthetic organ of the plant, the makeup of the plant is key to understanding the plants genetic makep
Define: upper epidermis
lignifies xylem are situated toward the upper epidermis
Define: lower epidermis
the phloem is located the lower epidermis
Define: stomata
a minute opening, bordered by guard cells, in the epidermis of leaves and stems through which gases pass; also used to refer to the entire stomatal apparatus - the guard cells plus their included pore
Define: mesophyll
the ground tissue of a leaf, located between the layers of epidermis; meophyll cells generally contain chloroplasts
Define: palisade parenchyma
a leaf tissue composed of columnar chloroplast-bearing parenchyma cells w/their long axes at right angles to the leaf surface
Define: spongy parenchyma
a leaf tissue compsed of loosely arranged, chloroplast-bearing cells
Define: vascular bundles
a strand of tissue containing primary xylem and primary phloem (and procambium if still present) and frequently enclosed by a bundle sheath of parenchyma or fibers
Define: bundle sheath
layer or layers of cells surrounding a vascular bundle; may consist of parenchyma or sclerenchyma cells, or both
Define: water and mineral transport
most plants secure the water and minerals they need from their roots

The path taken is:
soil->roots->stems->leaves
Identify 2 forms of water transport?
1) apoplast- cell wall->around the cortex->into endoderm->pericycle->xylem
2) symplast- enters through plasmodesmata, enters the cell walls->epidermis->cortex->endodermis->pericycle->xylem vessels and or tracheids
Define: minerals
a naturally ocurring chemical element or inorganic compound
Define: transpiration
the loss of water vapor by plant parts; most transpiration occurs through stomata
Define: root pressure
the pressure developed in roots as the result of osmosi, which causes guttation of waterfrom leaves and exudation from cut stumps
Define: guttation
the exudation of liquid water from leaves; caused by root pressure
Define: translocation
in plants, the long-distance transport of water, minerals, or food; most ofter used to refer to food transport
Define: phloem loading
the process by which substances (primarily sugars) are actively secreted into the sieve tubes
Define: osmosis
the diffusion of water, or any solvent, across a selectively permeable membrane; in the absence of other forces, the movement of water during osmosis will always be from a region of greater water potential to one of lesser water potential