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105 Cards in this Set

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Be sure to give full description of all noticable cells & functions...
Identify the slide?
Be sure to give full description of all cells and their functions...
Identify the slide?
Be sure to give full description of all cells and their functions...
Identify the slide?
Be sure to give full description of all cells and their functions...
Identify the slide?
Be sure to give full description of all cells and their functions...
Identify the slide?
Be sure to give full description of all cells and their functions...
Identify the slide?
Be sure to give full description of all cells and their functions...
identify the slide?
Be sure to give full description of all cells and their functions...
Identify the slide?
Be sure to give full description of all cells and their functions...
Identify the slide?
Be sure to give full description of all cells and their functions...
Identify the slide?
Be sure to give full description of all cells and their functions...
Identify the slide?
Be sure to give full description of all cells and their functions...
Identify the slide?
Be sure to give full description of all cells and their functions...
Identify the slide?
Be sure to give full description of all cells and their functions...
identify the slide
Be sure to give full description of all cells and their functions...
identify the slide?
Be sure to give full description of all cells and their functions...
Identify the slide?
Be sure to give full description of everything...
Identify the slide?
Be sure to give full description of everything...
Identify the slide?
Be sure to give full description of everything...
Identify the slide?
Be sure to give full description of everything...
Identify the slide?
Be sure to give full description of everything...
Identify the slide?
Be sure to give full description of everything...
Identify the slide?
Be sure to give full description of everything...
Identify the slide?
Be sure to give full description of everything...
Identify the slide?
Be sure to give full description of everything...
Identify the slide?
Define: Axis
vertidal up/daown part of plant
Define: the 4 root system functions
1) anchorage- holds plant implace against wind
2) absorption - minerals and water from the soil environment
3) conduction - vascular sustem moving water, minerals, and food (sucrose)
4) storage - holds onto sugar (sucrose)
Define: Tap (primary) root
The primary root of a plant formed in direct contiuation w/the root tip or radicle of the embryo; forms a stout, tapering main root from which arise smaller, lateral roots
Define: Lateral (branch) roots
A root that arises from another, older root; also called a branch root, or secondary root, if the older root is hte primary
Define: root apex
tip of root
Define: root apical meristem
RAM, produces three primary meristems (procambium, ground meristem, and protoderm) plus the root cap, which protects the apical meristem from rock, dirt and other pathogens
Define: Shoot system
composed of stems and leaves
Define: shoot apex
The terminal bud of a plant, which consiste of the apical meristem and the immediate surrounding leaf primordia and developing leaves and adjacent stem tissue
Define: Shoot apical meristem
SAM is a small group of dividing cells that generate all of the aerial parts of the plant, such as floral arrangements, stems, leaves etc... Provides the frame work for the analysis of the plant...
Define: stem
the part of the axis of vascular plants that is above ground, as well as anatomically similar portions below ground, such as rhizomes or corns
Define: stems 4 main functions
1) CONDUCTION - water, minerals, food
2) storage - food
3) beard leaves & repoductive structures
4) If green, photosynthesis is carried on
Define: node
point along stem where leaves attach
Define: internode
distance between nodes
Define: leaves
leaves main function - photosynthesis haopens primarily in the leaves
Define: petiole
the stalk of the leaf
Define: blade
the broad, expanded part of the leaf; the lamina
Define: leaflets
one of the parts of a compound leaf
Define: axil
the upper angle between a twig or leaf and the stem from which it grows
Define: axillary bud
is found in the axil, w/the right signal it produces a branch w/leaves
Define: dermal tissue system
the outercovering tissue of the plant; the epidermis or the periderm
Define: epidermis
the outermost layer of cells of the leafand or young stems and roots; primary in orign
Define: epidermal hairs (trichomes)
an outgrowth of the epidermis, such as a hair, scale, or water vesidle
Define: vascular tissue system
all the vascular tissues in their specific arrangement in a plant or plant organ, generally xylem and phloem
Define: xylem
a complex vacular tissue through which most of the water and minerals of a plant are conducted; characterized by the presence of tracheary elements
Define: phloem
the food conducting tissue of vacular plants, which is composed of SIEVE ELEMENTS, various kinds of PARENCHYMA CELLS, fibers, and SCLEREIDS
Define: ground tissue system
all tissues other than the epidermis (or periderm) and the vascular tissues; also called fundamental tissue system
Define: cortex
ground tissue region of a stem or root bounded externally by epidermis and internally by the vascular system; a primary tissue region; also used to refer to the peripheral region of a cell protoplast
Define: plant organs
inside parts of the plant
Define & Identify 3 tissue system
a tissue or group of tissues organized into a structural and functional unit in a plant or plant organ. There are three tissue systems: dermal, vascular, and ground, or fundamental
Define: dermal tissue system
the outer covering tissue of the plant, the epidermis of the periderm
Define: vascular tissue system
xylem and phloem
Define: ground tissue systems
cortex
Define: tissue
a group of similar cells organized into a structural and functional unit
Define: simple tissue
a tissue composed of a singler cell type; parenchyma, collenchyma, and scllerenchyma are simple tissue
Define: parenchyma
a tissue composed of parenchyma cells, which are living, generally thin-walled cell of variable size and form; the most abundant kind of cell in plants
Define: collenchyma
a supporting tissue composed of sollenchyma cells, common in regions of primary growth in stems and in some leaves, collenchyma cells are elongated living cells with unevenly thickened, nonlignified primary cell wall
Define: sclerenchyma
a supporting tissue composed of sclerenchyma cells, including fibers and sclereids, sclerenchyma cells are cells of variable form and size w/more or less thick, often lignified, secondary walls; may or may not be living at maturity; includes fibers and sclereids
Define: fiber
an elongated, tapering, generally thick-walled sclerenchyma cell of vascular plants; its walls may or may not be lignified; it may or may not have a living protoplast at maturity
Define: sclereid
a sclerenchyma cell w/a thick, lignified secondary wall having many pits. Sclereids area variable in form but typically not very long; they may or may not be living at maturity
Define: complex tissue
a tissue consists of two or more cell types; epidermis, peiderm, xylem and phloem are complex tissues
Define: tracheary elements
the general term for a water-conducting cell in vascular plants; tracheids and vessel elements
Define: tracheids
an elongated, thick-walled conducting and supporting cell of xylem. It has tapering ends and pitted walls w/out perforations, as contrasted w/a vessel element. FOUND IN: nearly all vascular plants
Define: vessel elements
one of the cells composing a vessel; also called vessel member
Define: sieve cells
a long, slender sieve element w/relatively unspecialized sieve areas and w/tapering end walls that lack sieve plates; found in the phloem of gymnosperms
Define: sieve tube members
one of the component cells of a sieve tube; FOUND primarily in flowering plants and typically associated w/a companion cell; also called sieve tube element
Define: companion cells
a specialized parenchyma cell associated w/a sieve tube element in angiosperm phloem and arising from the same mother cell as the sieve tube element
Define: epidermal cell
ordinary epidermal cells are the outer boundary cell
Define: guard cells
pairs of specialized epidermal cells surrounding a pore, or stoma; changes in the turgor of a pair of guard cells cause opening ans closing of the pore
Define: stoma
a minute opening, bordered by guard cells, in the epidermis of leaves and stems through which gases pass; alsoused to refer to the entire stomatal apparatus - the guard cells plus their included pore
Define: subsidiary cells
an epidermal cell morphologically distinct from other epidermal cells and associated w/a pair of guard cells; also called an accessory cell
Define: trichomes
an outgrowth of the epidermis, such as a hair, scale, or water vesicle
Define: cuticle
waxy or fatty layer on outer wall of epidermal cells, formed of cutin and wax
Define: leaf primordia
a lateral outgrowth from the apical meristem that will eventually become a leaf
Define: axillary bud primordia
an axillary bud that is in its earliest stage of differentiation
Define: meristematic cells
are incompletely or not at all differentiated, and are capable of contiued cellular division, these cells ae small and protplasm fills the cell completely, they are packed closely together w/out intercellular cavities...
Define: mitosis
a process during which the duplicated chromosomes divide longitudinally and the daughter chromosomes then separate to form two genetically identical daughter nuclei; usually accompanied by cytokinesis
Define: elongation
elongation of the stem is inhibited and the emphasis of development shifts from straight growth to expanding photosynthesis capacity.
Define: differetiation
a developmental process by which a relatively unspecialized cell undergoes a progressive change to a more specialized cell; the specialization of cell and tissues for particular fuctions during development
Define: primary meristem
a tissue derived from the apical meristem; of three kinds: protoderm, procambium and ground meristem
Define: protoderm
primary meristematic tissue that gives rise to epidermis
Define: procambium
a primary meristematic tissue that gives rise to primary vacular tissues
Define: ground meristem
the primary meristem, or meristematic tissue, that gives rise to the ground tissues
Define: maturation
the final differentiation processes in biological systems, such as the final ripenig of a seed or the attainment of full functional capacity by a cell, a tissue, or an organ
Define: primary tissue
cells derived from the apical meristems and primary meristematic tissues of root and shoot; as opposed to secondary tissues derived from cambium; primary growth results in an increase in length
Define: vascular bundles
a strand of tissue containing primary xylem and primary phloem and frequently enclosed by a bundle sheath of paranchyma or fibers
Define: pith
the ground tissue occupying the center of the stem or root w/in the vacular cylinder; usually consists of parenchyma
Define: pith ray
region of tissue between vascular bundles in a stem
Define: primary root
the first root of the plant, developing in continuation of the root tip or radicle of the embryo; the TAPROOT
Define: tap root system
a root system consisting of one or more prominent, swollen roots w/few side roots; often a food storage structure. Also, the primary root of a plant formed in direct continuation w/the root tip or radicle of the embryo; forms a stout, tapering main root from which arise small, LATERAL ROOTS
Define: fleshy tap root
root that doesn't grow with depth, but more on girth (hairy root)
Example of taproot: carrot
Define: fibrous root system
sometimes called adventitious root system, is the opposite of a tap root system. It is usually formed by thin, moderately branchong roots growing from the stem, usually seen in ferns and most trees after the first few years of growth, this is a horizontal surface root and only a few vertica, deep anchoring roots.
Define: adventitious root
is a root growing from stems or leaves
Define: prop roots
is an adventitious root arising from the stem above soil level and helping to support the plant; common in mnay monocots, for maize (corn)
Define: aerial roots
are roots that are aboveground. They area almost ALWAYS Adventitious. Example: orchids or ivy
Define: root nodules
occur on the roots of plants that associate w/ symbiotic bacteria
Define: bacteria
the phylogenetic domain consisting of all prokaryotes that are not members of the domain Archaea
Define: nitrogen fixation
the incorporation of atmospheric nitrogen into nitrogen compounds; carried out by certain free-living and symbiotic bacteria
Define: root cap
a thimblelike mass of cells that covers and protects the growin tip of a root
Define: mucigel sheath
a slime sheath covering the surface of many roots
Define: region of cell division
a place/location where the division of cell and its contents, usually into two roughly equal parts