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80 Cards in this Set

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A small flatworm present in the ponds of deformed frogs.
Ribeiroia
The scientific study of living things.
Biology
An organized genetic unit capable of metabolism, reproduction, and evolution.
Life
The total chemical activity of a living organism.
Metabolism
Maintenance of fairly stable internal conditions.
Homeostasis
The combination of reproduction and errors in the duplication of genetic material results in ________, a change in the genetic composition of a population of organisms over time.
biological evolution
The differences among living things that enable them to live in different kinds of environments and adopt different lifestyles.
adaptions
What are some goals of biologists?
To understand how organisms and assemblages of organisms function and to use that knowledge to solve problems.
What are three defining characteristics of life?
Metabolism, reproduction, and evolution.
What controls the chemical reactions needed to function in an organism?
genes
What are some factors that organisms must make metabolic adjustments to?
changes in temperature, the presence or absence of sunlight, or the presence of foreign agents inside their bodies.
What is a way, other than homeostasis, that organisms respond to change?
reorganization
What do the similarity of mammalian limbs suggest?
Limbs have been modified over time from the forelimbs of a common ancestor.
What was Lamarck's theory?
Certain features become larger and more developed over time because they were used more. This is not correct.
What is Darwin's conclusion that, "The differnces among individuals influence how well those individuals survive and reproduce. Any traits that increase the probability that their beaters will survive and reproduce are passed on to their offspring and to their offspring's offspring."
Natural Selection
What problem did critics have with Darwin's view of natural selection?
It suggested that the world was much older than originally thought.
The smallest chemical units.
atoms
Led to the appearance of life nearly 4 billion years ago when random inorganic chemical interactions produced molecules that could act as templates to form similar molecules.
chemical evolution
Compartments that enclose systems of molecules.
Cells
What control did cells exert over molecules?
The entrance, retention, and exit of molecules and the chemical reactions taking place.
What marked the beginning of biological evolution?
the origin of cells
What kind of organisms existed on earth for 2 billion years after cells originated?
unicellur organisms, prokaryotes (although eukaryotic cells also began as unicellular organisms)
Why were prokaryotic cells confined to the oceans?
there was no atmoshpere to block uv light.
The ability to use the energy of sunlight to power metabolism.
photosynthesis
What present day prokaryotes are similar to early photosynthetic cells?
cyanobacteria
Prokaryotes that developed a tollerance to _______ were able to proliferate in abundance where other organisms were wiped out.
oxygen
Metabolic reactions that use oxygen; allowed cells to grow larger.
aerobic metabolism
What was the long term effect of photosythesis on the atmosphere?
A dense layer of ozone (O3) that acted as a uv shield.
Cells with complex internal compartments. Can be part of a one or more celled organism.
eukaryotic cells
organisms consisting of more than one cell
multicellular organisms
What two developments made the evolution of multicellular organisms possible?
the development of prokaryotes to transform themselves into resting spores that could survive harsh environments and allowing cells to stick together after they divided and to act in a coordinated manner.
Exchanges of genetic material.
sex
Nuclear division.
Mitosis
Specialized sex cells
gametes
A more complex method of nuclear divisions.
meiosis
What is the heirarchy of units.
atoms, molecules, cells, tissue, organ, organism, population, community, biosphere.
Groups of animals that only breed with eachother.
species
What terms refer to the level of complexity of an organism?
simple and complex
What terms distinguish characterstics that appeared earlier from those that appeared later in evolution?
ancestral and derived
Splits in population.
Speciation events
The most broad division of organisms. Have been evolving seperately from eachother for more than a billion years.
domains
The two prokaryote domains.
Archea and Bacteria
The domain that has eucaryotic cells.
Eukarya
What are the four kingdoms?
Protista, Plantae, Fungi, and Animalia.
Which kinds of organisms use photosynthesis?
some bacteria, some protists, and most plants.
Self-feeders,
autotrophs
Which group absorbs broken down products for food and how is their eating style classified?
fungi, heterotrophs
A groups of species that share a recent common ancestor.
genus
What two names are species identified by
genus and species
hypothesis-prediction approach
five steps: observations, questions, hypotheses, predictions, testing the predictions
An experiment in which all factors except for the hypothesized one are kept constant.
controlled experiments
Hypotheses are tested by making predictions about patterns that should exist in nature if the hypotheses are correct.
comparitive method
What is the highest level in the hierarchy of Monera (not including cell)?
Molecules
What is the highest level in the hierarchy of protists(not including cell)?
organelle
What is the highest level in the hierarchy of fungi (not including cell)?
tissues
What is the highest level in the hierarchy of plantae (not including cell)?
organs
What is the highest level in the hierarchy of Animals (not including cell)?
systems of organs
These bonds share electrons.
Covalent bonds.
In a water molecule, the _____ is more electronegative.
oxygen
What relatively weak bonds connect water molecules?
hydrogen bonds
polar molecules tend to be _____.
hydrophillic
Non-polar molecules tend to be ______.
hydrophobic
Non-polar moecules are attracted to eacother via relatively weak forces called________.
Van der Waals forces.
Solid water has a lot of hydrogen bonds, water has fewer, if one breaks off completely, it ___________.
evaporates
The number of calories needed to raise on gram of water one degree.
specific heat
water has a high ___ making it difficult to puncture.
surface tension
The cool-aid drink in cool-aid.
solution
the powder in cool-aid drink
solute
the water in cool-aid
the solvent
-OH means
hydroxyl
-COOH means
carboxyl
-NH2 means
amino
Life arose on Earth approximately how many years ago?
3.8 billion years ago
______ are the differences among organisms that allow for life in such a wide variety of environments.
adaptions
Which of the following statements regarding evolutionary biology is not true?

a) Darwin and Wallace postulated that mortality rates match reproductive rates, that characteristics are heritable, and that those characterstics most suited to the environment are selected for.

b) Darwin postulated that characteristics could be acquired in a single generation.

c) Darwin was the first to come up with an evolutionary theory.

d) both b and c
d
Which of the following is not a domain in the Tree of Life?

a) archaea
b) plantae
c) eukarya
d) bacteria
plantae
The deepest division of the evolutionary history of life is?
domain
Organisms are named using first their ______ and then their ________.
genus; species
For a hypothesis to be scientifically valid, it must be _____ and it must be possible to _______ it.
testable, reject
What property of water make it an excellent solvent?
it is a polar molecule