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17 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
What is matter?
Anything that takes up space and has mass.
What is matter composed of?
Elements, or substances that cannot be broken down. There are 92 natural elements.
Living organisms are made of?
Primarily 6 elements. CHNOPS
Atomic Structure
- elements made of atoms
- atomic symbol - name of atom
- periodic table (columns are groups; rows are periods)
- elements in groups have similar chemical & phsical characteristics
Atomic Structure
- atoms composed of
neutron (no charge;
proton (+ charge);
electron (- charge)
- proton & neutron inside nucleus
- electron outside nucleus in electron shell
Atomic Structure
Atomic number = # of protons (= electrons)
Atomic mass # = # of protons + neutrons
Letter is chemical symbol
What is an ISOTOPE?
An atom with the same # of protons but different # of neutrons.
For example, Carbon 12 & Carbon 14
Nucleus of isotope can be unstable & decay
decaying isotopes emit radiation
Arrangements of ELECTRONS in Atom
Electrons encircle nucleus at energy levels called electron Electrons in outer (valence shell) determine chemical reactivity of atoms & are called valence electrons.
Types of Chemical Bonds
Groups of bonded atoms form molecule.
Moloecule w/ more than 1 type of element is compound.
Different bonds hold molecules & compounds together.
IONIC BONDS
Formed when + & - ions are attracted to one another.
Ions are charged atoms formed when atoms gain or lose electrons.
NaCl
COVALENT BONDS
Results when two atoms SHARE electrons, thereby completing their valence shells.
H2O
Chemical Reactions
When molecules/compounds chemically changed called chemical reaction.
Photosynthesis is example.
Molecules that participate called reactants.
Molecules formed by rxn are products.
Structure of Water
All organisms 70-90% water.
Unequal shareing of electons in h2o makes h20 polar.
Polar h2o molecules are attracted to each other & can form hygrogen bonds.
Polar covalent bonds
-Atoms have differing electronegativities
-share the electrons unequally.
Hydrogen Bonds
- forms when hydrogen atom covalently bonded to one electronegative atom is also attracted to another electronegative atom.
- Hydrogen bond is weak
Properties of Water
1) h2o is a solvent
2) h2o shows cohesion & adhesion
3) h2o has a high surface tension
4) h2o has heat capacity
5) h2o has high heat of vaporization
Forms of Water
- GAS (hydrogen bonds break)
- LIQUID (H bonds is breaking & reforming)
- SOLID (H bond can no longer break, it is fixed)Less dense than liquid, expands as it freezes